Replicated data-matrix array generators

P. Pelli, H. Elfström (Corresponding Author), K. Jefimovs, Janne Aikio, Kimmo Karppinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


The fabrication and replication of binary spot array generators using 4 and 16 levels gratings is investigated. The elements are designed using iterative Fourier transform algorithm and fabricated by electron-beam lithography. Finally elements are copied by fabricating nickel shims and using hot embossing technique. In each step the optical signals are measured and signals are characterized using bit error rate as a measure of quality. The results show that although 16 level element gives theoretically superior performance, the bit error rate is much lower (∼0.2%) for replicated 4 level elements than for their 16 level counterparts (∼9%).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-336
Number of pages8
JournalOptics Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • diffractive optics
  • diffraction grating
  • optics
  • array generators

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