Response of fire detectors to different smokes

Jouni Björkman, Olavi Keski-Rahkonen

Research output: Book/ReportReport


The purpose of this work is to characterize the behavior of fire alarm systems based on smoke detectors on smoldering fires especially cable fires in nuclear power plants (NPP). Full-scale fire experiments were carried out in a laboratory designed according to the standard EN54-9. The laboratory was instrumented with additional equipment such as thermocouples and flow meters, which are not used in standard fire sensitivity tests. This allows the resultstobe used results as experimental data for validation tasks of numerical fire simulation computerized fluid dynamics (CFD)-codes. The ultimate goal of the research is to model theoretically smoldering and flaming cable fires, their smoke production, transfer of smoke to detectors, as well as the response of detectors and fire alarm systems to potential fires.This would allow the use of numerical fire simulation to predict fire hazards in different fire scenarios found important in PSA (probability safety assessment) of NPPs. This report concentrates on explaining full-scale fire experiments in the smoke sensitivity laboratory and experimental results from fire tests of detectors. Validation tasks with CFD-codes will be first carried out "blind" without any idea about corresponding experimental results. Accordingly, the experimental results cannot be published in this report.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages38
ISBN (Print)951-38-4953-8
Publication statusPublished - 1997
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Publications


  • fire alarm systems
  • smoke
  • smoke detectors
  • nuclear power plants
  • fire tests
  • simulation
  • measuring instruments
  • fire safety
  • fire prevention


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