Results of the International Energy Agency Bioenergy Round Robin on the Analysis of Heteroatoms in Biomass Liquefaction Oils

Philip Bulsink (Corresponding Author), Ferran De Miguel Mercader, Linda Sandström, Bert Van De Beld, Fernando Preto, Alan Zacher, Anja Oasmaa, Nicolaus Dahmen, Axel Funke, Benjamin Bronson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

A round robin study evaluating the analysis of biomass liquefaction oils (BLOs) from fast pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) was performed, receiving data from 14 laboratories in seven countries in order to assess the current status of analytical techniques for the determination of nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine content in BLOs and to evaluate potential differences in origin (i.e., fast pyrolysis versus HTL). The BLOs were produced from a range of feedstocks including pine, mixed softwoods, forest residues, microalgae, miscanthus, and wheat straw to cover a variety in nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine content and speciation. Nine samples were distributed, comprised of eight separate BLOs and one blind duplicate produced by five producers. The samples were analyzed for water, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine content. No analytical test method was mandated; laboratories were encouraged to utilize whichever method they determined would be most applicable, relying on the existing body of BLO literature as a guide. The results of this round robin study are presented in this paper. The results of the carbon, hydrogen, and water measurements as reference analyses had relative standard deviations (2.9, 3.5, and 5.6%, respectively) that were comparable to those found in past round robin studies on fast pyrolysis bio-oil. The analysis of nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine showed higher levels of variability. Laboratories mostly chose the same method for water, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen determination, whereas there were a variety of methods chosen for sulfur and chlorine determination. The results suggest that specific analytical methods for the determination of nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine should be further refined to ensure reproducible and accurate results for BLO analysis due to their importance in emissions, material selection, and catalyst activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11123–11133
Number of pages11
JournalEnergy and Fuels
Volume34
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Sep 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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