Revaporisation issues: An Overview

David Bottomley, Ray Dickson, Tomi Routamo, Jiri Dienstbier, Ari Auvinen, Nathalie Girault

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The SARNET programme is investigating revaporisation under the Source Term topic (WP15). Revaporisation of already deposited radioactive fission products can considerably increase fission product release if the primary circuit is then breached. The Phebus Revaporisation project explained certain phenomena of the FPT1 test and showed Cs deposits can rapidly revaporise. The similarity between the behaviour of pure CsOH deposits (tested at VTT) and the mixed radioactive FPT1 deposits (tested at ITU) indicated that CsOH could be a principal species in the reactor accident case. The revaporisation of fission products deposited onto different surfaces in a hot-cell fission-product release experiment has also been investigated at AECL. The fission products were deposited on coupons of CANDU-typical materials (carbon steel, Inconel 600, Zircaloy-4, Zr-2.5Nb, and stainless steel alloys 410 and 403) at temperatures between 160°C and 600°C. Deposits were heated at 700°C for 1800 s in either Ar/H2 or air environments and revaporisation occurred for Ru, Cs & Te. UJV used the REVAP FPT1 and VTT single species data with SOPHAEROS/ASTEC to model revaporisation. The extended Material Database (a part of ASTEC, about 800 species) was mostly used. The Database was checked first using the single species VTT tests. The calculated CsOH revaporisation in the VTT experiments was too fast, that of CsI was in agreement with the experiment. Possibly, the saturated vapour pressure for CsOH is too high in the Database in ASTEC V1.3; therefore the MELCOR 1.8.5 data with lower CsOH saturation pressure will be used in the VTT and the FPT1 calculations with ASTEC V1.3. The ASTEC V1.3 version was used to analyse the Phebus FPT1 sample revaporisation. Whole experiment calculations with ASTEC indicated the non-volatile Cs2MoO4 being the main Cs-deposited species, the REVAP experiment indicated a more volatile form like CsOH or CsI. Fortum has implemented a VTT revaporisation model into the severe accident simulation code APROS SA. Simulations on the loop part of PHEBUS FP in FPT1 showed very rapid revaporisation of deposited material from the hot leg. The simulations slightly overestimated the final deposition in the SG part. In the cold leg the simulations resulted in deposited fractions that were clearly too high.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings
Subtitle of host publication2nd European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research, ERMSAR 2007
Place of PublicationKarlsruhe
PagesS4-6
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
Event2nd European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research, ERMSAR-2007 - Karlsruhe, Germany
Duration: 12 Jun 200714 Jun 2007

Conference

Conference2nd European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research, ERMSAR-2007
Abbreviated titleERMSAR-2007
CountryGermany
CityKarlsruhe
Period12/06/0714/06/07

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Cite this

Bottomley, D., Dickson, R., Routamo, T., Dienstbier, J., Auvinen, A., & Girault, N. (2007). Revaporisation issues: An Overview. In Proceedings: 2nd European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research, ERMSAR 2007 (pp. S4-6). Karlsruhe.
Bottomley, David ; Dickson, Ray ; Routamo, Tomi ; Dienstbier, Jiri ; Auvinen, Ari ; Girault, Nathalie. / Revaporisation issues: An Overview. Proceedings: 2nd European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research, ERMSAR 2007. Karlsruhe, 2007. pp. S4-6
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title = "Revaporisation issues: An Overview",
abstract = "The SARNET programme is investigating revaporisation under the Source Term topic (WP15). Revaporisation of already deposited radioactive fission products can considerably increase fission product release if the primary circuit is then breached. The Phebus Revaporisation project explained certain phenomena of the FPT1 test and showed Cs deposits can rapidly revaporise. The similarity between the behaviour of pure CsOH deposits (tested at VTT) and the mixed radioactive FPT1 deposits (tested at ITU) indicated that CsOH could be a principal species in the reactor accident case. The revaporisation of fission products deposited onto different surfaces in a hot-cell fission-product release experiment has also been investigated at AECL. The fission products were deposited on coupons of CANDU-typical materials (carbon steel, Inconel 600, Zircaloy-4, Zr-2.5Nb, and stainless steel alloys 410 and 403) at temperatures between 160°C and 600°C. Deposits were heated at 700°C for 1800 s in either Ar/H2 or air environments and revaporisation occurred for Ru, Cs & Te. UJV used the REVAP FPT1 and VTT single species data with SOPHAEROS/ASTEC to model revaporisation. The extended Material Database (a part of ASTEC, about 800 species) was mostly used. The Database was checked first using the single species VTT tests. The calculated CsOH revaporisation in the VTT experiments was too fast, that of CsI was in agreement with the experiment. Possibly, the saturated vapour pressure for CsOH is too high in the Database in ASTEC V1.3; therefore the MELCOR 1.8.5 data with lower CsOH saturation pressure will be used in the VTT and the FPT1 calculations with ASTEC V1.3. The ASTEC V1.3 version was used to analyse the Phebus FPT1 sample revaporisation. Whole experiment calculations with ASTEC indicated the non-volatile Cs2MoO4 being the main Cs-deposited species, the REVAP experiment indicated a more volatile form like CsOH or CsI. Fortum has implemented a VTT revaporisation model into the severe accident simulation code APROS SA. Simulations on the loop part of PHEBUS FP in FPT1 showed very rapid revaporisation of deposited material from the hot leg. The simulations slightly overestimated the final deposition in the SG part. In the cold leg the simulations resulted in deposited fractions that were clearly too high.",
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Bottomley, D, Dickson, R, Routamo, T, Dienstbier, J, Auvinen, A & Girault, N 2007, Revaporisation issues: An Overview. in Proceedings: 2nd European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research, ERMSAR 2007. Karlsruhe, pp. S4-6, 2nd European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research, ERMSAR-2007, Karlsruhe, Germany, 12/06/07.

Revaporisation issues: An Overview. / Bottomley, David; Dickson, Ray; Routamo, Tomi; Dienstbier, Jiri; Auvinen, Ari; Girault, Nathalie.

Proceedings: 2nd European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research, ERMSAR 2007. Karlsruhe, 2007. p. S4-6.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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AU - Girault, Nathalie

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N2 - The SARNET programme is investigating revaporisation under the Source Term topic (WP15). Revaporisation of already deposited radioactive fission products can considerably increase fission product release if the primary circuit is then breached. The Phebus Revaporisation project explained certain phenomena of the FPT1 test and showed Cs deposits can rapidly revaporise. The similarity between the behaviour of pure CsOH deposits (tested at VTT) and the mixed radioactive FPT1 deposits (tested at ITU) indicated that CsOH could be a principal species in the reactor accident case. The revaporisation of fission products deposited onto different surfaces in a hot-cell fission-product release experiment has also been investigated at AECL. The fission products were deposited on coupons of CANDU-typical materials (carbon steel, Inconel 600, Zircaloy-4, Zr-2.5Nb, and stainless steel alloys 410 and 403) at temperatures between 160°C and 600°C. Deposits were heated at 700°C for 1800 s in either Ar/H2 or air environments and revaporisation occurred for Ru, Cs & Te. UJV used the REVAP FPT1 and VTT single species data with SOPHAEROS/ASTEC to model revaporisation. The extended Material Database (a part of ASTEC, about 800 species) was mostly used. The Database was checked first using the single species VTT tests. The calculated CsOH revaporisation in the VTT experiments was too fast, that of CsI was in agreement with the experiment. Possibly, the saturated vapour pressure for CsOH is too high in the Database in ASTEC V1.3; therefore the MELCOR 1.8.5 data with lower CsOH saturation pressure will be used in the VTT and the FPT1 calculations with ASTEC V1.3. The ASTEC V1.3 version was used to analyse the Phebus FPT1 sample revaporisation. Whole experiment calculations with ASTEC indicated the non-volatile Cs2MoO4 being the main Cs-deposited species, the REVAP experiment indicated a more volatile form like CsOH or CsI. Fortum has implemented a VTT revaporisation model into the severe accident simulation code APROS SA. Simulations on the loop part of PHEBUS FP in FPT1 showed very rapid revaporisation of deposited material from the hot leg. The simulations slightly overestimated the final deposition in the SG part. In the cold leg the simulations resulted in deposited fractions that were clearly too high.

AB - The SARNET programme is investigating revaporisation under the Source Term topic (WP15). Revaporisation of already deposited radioactive fission products can considerably increase fission product release if the primary circuit is then breached. The Phebus Revaporisation project explained certain phenomena of the FPT1 test and showed Cs deposits can rapidly revaporise. The similarity between the behaviour of pure CsOH deposits (tested at VTT) and the mixed radioactive FPT1 deposits (tested at ITU) indicated that CsOH could be a principal species in the reactor accident case. The revaporisation of fission products deposited onto different surfaces in a hot-cell fission-product release experiment has also been investigated at AECL. The fission products were deposited on coupons of CANDU-typical materials (carbon steel, Inconel 600, Zircaloy-4, Zr-2.5Nb, and stainless steel alloys 410 and 403) at temperatures between 160°C and 600°C. Deposits were heated at 700°C for 1800 s in either Ar/H2 or air environments and revaporisation occurred for Ru, Cs & Te. UJV used the REVAP FPT1 and VTT single species data with SOPHAEROS/ASTEC to model revaporisation. The extended Material Database (a part of ASTEC, about 800 species) was mostly used. The Database was checked first using the single species VTT tests. The calculated CsOH revaporisation in the VTT experiments was too fast, that of CsI was in agreement with the experiment. Possibly, the saturated vapour pressure for CsOH is too high in the Database in ASTEC V1.3; therefore the MELCOR 1.8.5 data with lower CsOH saturation pressure will be used in the VTT and the FPT1 calculations with ASTEC V1.3. The ASTEC V1.3 version was used to analyse the Phebus FPT1 sample revaporisation. Whole experiment calculations with ASTEC indicated the non-volatile Cs2MoO4 being the main Cs-deposited species, the REVAP experiment indicated a more volatile form like CsOH or CsI. Fortum has implemented a VTT revaporisation model into the severe accident simulation code APROS SA. Simulations on the loop part of PHEBUS FP in FPT1 showed very rapid revaporisation of deposited material from the hot leg. The simulations slightly overestimated the final deposition in the SG part. In the cold leg the simulations resulted in deposited fractions that were clearly too high.

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

SP - S4-6

BT - Proceedings

CY - Karlsruhe

ER -

Bottomley D, Dickson R, Routamo T, Dienstbier J, Auvinen A, Girault N. Revaporisation issues: An Overview. In Proceedings: 2nd European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research, ERMSAR 2007. Karlsruhe. 2007. p. S4-6