Review of recent experimental and modeling advances in the understanding of lower hybrid current drive in ITER-relevant regimes

B.J. Ding (Corresponding Author), P.T. Bonoli, A. Tuccillo, M. Goniche, K. Kirov, M. Li, Y. Li, R. Cesario, Y. Peysson, A. Ekedahl, L. Amicucci, S. Baek, I. Faust, R. Parker, S. Shiraiwa, G.M. Wallace, A. Cardinali, C. Castaldo, S. Ceccuzzi, J. MaillouxF. Napoli, F. Liu, B. Wan, Leena Aho-Mantila, Markus Airila, Antti Hakola, Aaro Järvinen, Juuso Karhunen, Seppo Koivuranta, Aki Lahtinen, Jari Likonen, Antti Salmi, Paula Sirén, Tuomas Tala, JET Contributors

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

    21 Citations (Scopus)


    Progress in understanding lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) at high density has been made through experiments and modeling, which is encouraging given the need for an efficient off-axis current profile control technique in burning plasma. By reducing the wall recycling of neutrals, the edge temperature is increased and the effect of parametric instability (PI) and collisional absorption (CA) is reduced, which is beneficial for increasing the current drive efficiency. Strong single pass absorption is preferred to prevent CA and high LH operating frequency is essential for wave propagation to the core region at high density, presumably to mitigate the effect of PI. The dimensionless parameter that characterizes LH wave accessibility and wave refraction for the experiments in this joint study is shown to bracket the region in parameter space where ITER LHCD experiments will operate in the steady state scenario phase. Further joint experiments and cross modeling are necessary to understand the LHCD physics in weak damping regimes which would increase confidence in predictions for ITER where the absorption is expected to be strong.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number095003
    JournalNuclear Fusion
    Issue number9
    Publication statusPublished - 20 Jul 2018
    MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


    This work is supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Grant No. 2015GB102003, 2013GB106001B, 2013GB112003, 2015GB101002), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11675214, 11175206, 11305211 and 11275233), the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0400600, and 2016YFA0400602), Hefei Science Center CAS (2016HSC-IU008), the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the field of Plasma Physics (NSFC No. 11261140328), and K C Wong Education Foundation. Part of the work was conducted on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, a DoE Office of Science user facility, and is supported by USDoE awards DE-FC02-99ER54512, DE-AC02-09CH11466, and DoE Grant DE-SC0010492. It is partly supported by the China-Italy and the China-France Collaboration program. We also give thanks to the support from the IOS TG of the ITPA. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under grant agreement No 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission. Work has been part-funded by the RCUK Energy Programme (grant number EP/P012450/1).


    • ITER
    • lower hybrid current drive
    • magnetic fusion


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