Risk of Growth and Toxin Production by Clostridium botulinum Nonproteolytic Types B, E, and F in Salmon Fillets Stored Under Modified Atmospheres at Low and Abused Temperatures

Genaro Garcia, Constantin Genigeorgis, Seppo Lindroth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In factorial design experiments we inoculated fresh salmon fillets with a spore pool of 13 nonproteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum type B, E, and F at 6 levels (10−1 to 104/50 g of fillet), and incubated at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 30°C under modified atmospheres (MA) of vacuum, 100% CO2 and 70% CO2 + 30% air for up to 60 d. The earliest time we detected toxin in the fillets at 30, 12 and 8°C, irrespective of MA, was after 1, 3–9 and 6–12 d of storage and required 100–103, 101–103, 101–102 spores/fillet. The probability (P) of toxin production was significantly (P<0.05) affected by temperature (T), MA storage time (ST), MA × T, MA × ST and T × ST. Only type B toxin was detected in the toxic fillets. No toxin was detected in fillets stored at 4°C for up to 60 d. Toxin detection coincided with spoilage at 30°C, but preceded spoilage at 8 and 12°C, and followed spoilage at 4°C. Using linear and logistic regression analysis, best fit equations were derived relating the length of the lag phase and P of toxin production to T, ST, MA and spore inoculum level.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)330-336
JournalJournal of Food Protection
Volume50
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1987
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Clostridium botulinum B
Botulinum Toxins
Salmon
fillets
Atmosphere
salmon
toxins
Temperature
storage time
Growth
Spores
spoilage
temperature
controlled atmosphere storage
spores
Clostridium botulinum type F
Clostridium botulinum type B
Clostridium botulinum type E
carbon dioxide
Poisons

Cite this

@article{022abccb8ccd4c9589c2e939aef3f919,
title = "Risk of Growth and Toxin Production by Clostridium botulinum Nonproteolytic Types B, E, and F in Salmon Fillets Stored Under Modified Atmospheres at Low and Abused Temperatures",
abstract = "In factorial design experiments we inoculated fresh salmon fillets with a spore pool of 13 nonproteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum type B, E, and F at 6 levels (10−1 to 104/50 g of fillet), and incubated at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 30°C under modified atmospheres (MA) of vacuum, 100{\%} CO2 and 70{\%} CO2 + 30{\%} air for up to 60 d. The earliest time we detected toxin in the fillets at 30, 12 and 8°C, irrespective of MA, was after 1, 3–9 and 6–12 d of storage and required 100–103, 101–103, 101–102 spores/fillet. The probability (P) of toxin production was significantly (P<0.05) affected by temperature (T), MA storage time (ST), MA × T, MA × ST and T × ST. Only type B toxin was detected in the toxic fillets. No toxin was detected in fillets stored at 4°C for up to 60 d. Toxin detection coincided with spoilage at 30°C, but preceded spoilage at 8 and 12°C, and followed spoilage at 4°C. Using linear and logistic regression analysis, best fit equations were derived relating the length of the lag phase and P of toxin production to T, ST, MA and spore inoculum level.",
author = "Genaro Garcia and Constantin Genigeorgis and Seppo Lindroth",
year = "1987",
doi = "10.4315/0362-028X-50.4.330",
language = "English",
volume = "50",
pages = "330--336",
journal = "Journal of Food Protection",
issn = "0362-028X",
publisher = "International Association for Food Protection",
number = "4",

}

Risk of Growth and Toxin Production by Clostridium botulinum Nonproteolytic Types B, E, and F in Salmon Fillets Stored Under Modified Atmospheres at Low and Abused Temperatures. / Garcia, Genaro; Genigeorgis, Constantin; Lindroth, Seppo.

In: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 50, No. 4, 1987, p. 330-336.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Risk of Growth and Toxin Production by Clostridium botulinum Nonproteolytic Types B, E, and F in Salmon Fillets Stored Under Modified Atmospheres at Low and Abused Temperatures

AU - Garcia, Genaro

AU - Genigeorgis, Constantin

AU - Lindroth, Seppo

PY - 1987

Y1 - 1987

N2 - In factorial design experiments we inoculated fresh salmon fillets with a spore pool of 13 nonproteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum type B, E, and F at 6 levels (10−1 to 104/50 g of fillet), and incubated at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 30°C under modified atmospheres (MA) of vacuum, 100% CO2 and 70% CO2 + 30% air for up to 60 d. The earliest time we detected toxin in the fillets at 30, 12 and 8°C, irrespective of MA, was after 1, 3–9 and 6–12 d of storage and required 100–103, 101–103, 101–102 spores/fillet. The probability (P) of toxin production was significantly (P<0.05) affected by temperature (T), MA storage time (ST), MA × T, MA × ST and T × ST. Only type B toxin was detected in the toxic fillets. No toxin was detected in fillets stored at 4°C for up to 60 d. Toxin detection coincided with spoilage at 30°C, but preceded spoilage at 8 and 12°C, and followed spoilage at 4°C. Using linear and logistic regression analysis, best fit equations were derived relating the length of the lag phase and P of toxin production to T, ST, MA and spore inoculum level.

AB - In factorial design experiments we inoculated fresh salmon fillets with a spore pool of 13 nonproteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum type B, E, and F at 6 levels (10−1 to 104/50 g of fillet), and incubated at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 30°C under modified atmospheres (MA) of vacuum, 100% CO2 and 70% CO2 + 30% air for up to 60 d. The earliest time we detected toxin in the fillets at 30, 12 and 8°C, irrespective of MA, was after 1, 3–9 and 6–12 d of storage and required 100–103, 101–103, 101–102 spores/fillet. The probability (P) of toxin production was significantly (P<0.05) affected by temperature (T), MA storage time (ST), MA × T, MA × ST and T × ST. Only type B toxin was detected in the toxic fillets. No toxin was detected in fillets stored at 4°C for up to 60 d. Toxin detection coincided with spoilage at 30°C, but preceded spoilage at 8 and 12°C, and followed spoilage at 4°C. Using linear and logistic regression analysis, best fit equations were derived relating the length of the lag phase and P of toxin production to T, ST, MA and spore inoculum level.

U2 - 10.4315/0362-028X-50.4.330

DO - 10.4315/0362-028X-50.4.330

M3 - Article

VL - 50

SP - 330

EP - 336

JO - Journal of Food Protection

JF - Journal of Food Protection

SN - 0362-028X

IS - 4

ER -