Role of critical metals in the future markets of clean energy technologies

Leena Grandell (Corresponding Author), Antti Lehtilä, Mari Kivinen, Tiina Koljonen, Susanna Kihlman, Laura S. Lauri

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    54 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The global energy sector is expected to experience a gradual shift towards renewable energy sources in the coming decades. Climate change as well as energy security issues are the driving factors. In this process electricity is expected to gain importance to the cost of fuels. However, these new technologies are in many cases dependent on various metals. This analysis evaluates the need for special metals and compares it with known resources in order to find possible bottlenecks in the market. The time perspective of the analysis reaches to the year 2050. Following technologies have been selected for evaluation: solar electricity, wind power, fuel cells, batteries, electrolysis, hydrogen storages, electric cars and energy efficient lighting. The metals investigated belong either to the semiconductors, platinum group metals, rare earth metals or are other critical metals like silver and cobalt. The global transition of the energy sector is modelled with TIMES. According to the results the most critical market situation will be found in silver. Other elements, for which bottlenecks in the market seem possible, include tellurium, indium, dysprosium, lanthanum, cobalt, platinum and ruthenium. Renewable energy scenarios presented by the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report seem partly unrealistic from the perspective of critical metals.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)53-62
    JournalRenewable Energy
    Volume95
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Metals
    Fuel cells
    Platinum
    Cobalt
    Silver
    Electricity
    Dysprosium
    Energy security
    Tellurium
    Hydrogen storage
    Lanthanum
    Financial markets
    Ruthenium
    Electrolysis
    Climate change
    Indium
    Wind power
    Rare earths
    Railroad cars
    Lighting

    Keywords

    • critical metals
    • clean energy technologies
    • TIMES model
    • resources
    • reserves

    Cite this

    Grandell, Leena ; Lehtilä, Antti ; Kivinen, Mari ; Koljonen, Tiina ; Kihlman, Susanna ; Lauri, Laura S. / Role of critical metals in the future markets of clean energy technologies. In: Renewable Energy. 2016 ; Vol. 95. pp. 53-62.
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    title = "Role of critical metals in the future markets of clean energy technologies",
    abstract = "The global energy sector is expected to experience a gradual shift towards renewable energy sources in the coming decades. Climate change as well as energy security issues are the driving factors. In this process electricity is expected to gain importance to the cost of fuels. However, these new technologies are in many cases dependent on various metals. This analysis evaluates the need for special metals and compares it with known resources in order to find possible bottlenecks in the market. The time perspective of the analysis reaches to the year 2050. Following technologies have been selected for evaluation: solar electricity, wind power, fuel cells, batteries, electrolysis, hydrogen storages, electric cars and energy efficient lighting. The metals investigated belong either to the semiconductors, platinum group metals, rare earth metals or are other critical metals like silver and cobalt. The global transition of the energy sector is modelled with TIMES. According to the results the most critical market situation will be found in silver. Other elements, for which bottlenecks in the market seem possible, include tellurium, indium, dysprosium, lanthanum, cobalt, platinum and ruthenium. Renewable energy scenarios presented by the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report seem partly unrealistic from the perspective of critical metals.",
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    Role of critical metals in the future markets of clean energy technologies. / Grandell, Leena (Corresponding Author); Lehtilä, Antti; Kivinen, Mari; Koljonen, Tiina; Kihlman, Susanna; Lauri, Laura S.

    In: Renewable Energy, Vol. 95, 2016, p. 53-62.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    AU - Lehtilä, Antti

    AU - Kivinen, Mari

    AU - Koljonen, Tiina

    AU - Kihlman, Susanna

    AU - Lauri, Laura S.

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