Role of power to liquids and biomass to liquids in a nearly renewable energy system

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15 Citations (Scopus)


In order to achieve significant greenhouse gas emission reductions, decarbonisation of all economic sectors must be considered. Here, the authors study the provision of renewable energy for the power, district heating, transport and industrial sectors in nine North European countries by integrating a large amount of wind and solar power into the system with power-togas and power-to-fuel plants enabling balancing and sector coupling. Simultaneous optimisation of plant capacities and operation was performed. Two different synthetic liquid fuel production pathways were compared. The cost of synthetic liquid fuel remained, depending on the production pathway and amount, 30–120% higher than estimated fossil alternative cost. Biomass potential emerged as a limiting factor with high shares of biomass-based synthetic liquid fuel production. The need for energy storage system was estimated. The total optimal capacity of synthetic natural gas, hydrogen, synthetic liquid fuel, and heat storages varied between 37 and 54 TWh (1.7–2.5% of energy demand) depending on the scenario, when emergency stocks were not included. The cost of energy storages remained small compared to the total system cost, with heat storages exhibiting the highest cost.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1179-1189
Number of pages11
JournalIET Renewable Power Generation
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 9 May 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • air pollution
  • air pollution control
  • fossil fuels
  • natural gas technology
  • bioenergy conversion
  • biofuel
  • renewable energy sources


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