Roll-to-roll gravure printing of organic photovoltaic modules-insulation of processing defects by an interfacial layer

Pälvi Apilo (Corresponding Author), Jussi Hiltunen, Marja Välimäki, S. Heinilehto, R. Sliz, Jukka Hast

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Gravure printing as direct patterning roll-to-roll (R2R) production technology can revolutionize the design of thin-film organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices by allowing feasible manufacturing of arbitrary-shaped modules. This makes a distinction to coating methods, such as slot die coating, in which the pattern is limited to continuous stripes. Here, we analyze the thin-film formation and its influence on OPV module performance as the gravure printing of hole transport and photoactive layers are transferred from laboratory to R2R pilot production environment. Insertion of a 0.8-nm layer of lithium fluoride (LiF) as an interfacial layer between the active layer and the electron contact provided insulation against the detrimental pinholes formed in the R2R printing process. Using this device configuration, we produced well-performing R2Rprinted monolithic modules with a mean efficiency of 1.7%. In comparison, reference modules with an efficiency of 2.2% were fabricated using laboratory-scale bench top sheet-level process. Surface energy and tension measurements together with optical microscopy were used to analyze the printability of the materials. The pinhole insulation was investigated in detail by processing R2R-printed OPV modules with different interfacial layer materials and performing electrical measurements under dark and AM1.5 illumination conditions. Furthermore, we analyzed the LiF distribution using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The insulating nature of the LiF layer to improve module performance was confirmed by manufacturing lithographically artificial pinholes in device structures. The results show the possibility to loosen the production environment constraints and the feasibility of fabricating well-performing thin-film devices by R2R gravure printing.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)918-928
Number of pages10
JournalProgress in Photovoltaics
Volume23
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

printing
insulation
modules
lithium fluorides
defects
pinholes
manufacturing
thin films
slots
electrical measurement
seats
surface energy
coating
insertion
interfacial tension
illumination
photoelectron spectroscopy
microscopy
coatings
configurations

Keywords

  • organic photovoltaics
  • roll-to-roll
  • gravure printing
  • flexible electronics
  • thin films
  • low cost

Cite this

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title = "Roll-to-roll gravure printing of organic photovoltaic modules-insulation of processing defects by an interfacial layer",
abstract = "Gravure printing as direct patterning roll-to-roll (R2R) production technology can revolutionize the design of thin-film organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices by allowing feasible manufacturing of arbitrary-shaped modules. This makes a distinction to coating methods, such as slot die coating, in which the pattern is limited to continuous stripes. Here, we analyze the thin-film formation and its influence on OPV module performance as the gravure printing of hole transport and photoactive layers are transferred from laboratory to R2R pilot production environment. Insertion of a 0.8-nm layer of lithium fluoride (LiF) as an interfacial layer between the active layer and the electron contact provided insulation against the detrimental pinholes formed in the R2R printing process. Using this device configuration, we produced well-performing R2Rprinted monolithic modules with a mean efficiency of 1.7{\%}. In comparison, reference modules with an efficiency of 2.2{\%} were fabricated using laboratory-scale bench top sheet-level process. Surface energy and tension measurements together with optical microscopy were used to analyze the printability of the materials. The pinhole insulation was investigated in detail by processing R2R-printed OPV modules with different interfacial layer materials and performing electrical measurements under dark and AM1.5 illumination conditions. Furthermore, we analyzed the LiF distribution using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The insulating nature of the LiF layer to improve module performance was confirmed by manufacturing lithographically artificial pinholes in device structures. The results show the possibility to loosen the production environment constraints and the feasibility of fabricating well-performing thin-film devices by R2R gravure printing.",
keywords = "organic photovoltaics, roll-to-roll, gravure printing, flexible electronics, thin films, low cost",
author = "P{\"a}lvi Apilo and Jussi Hiltunen and Marja V{\"a}lim{\"a}ki and S. Heinilehto and R. Sliz and Jukka Hast",
year = "2014",
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Roll-to-roll gravure printing of organic photovoltaic modules-insulation of processing defects by an interfacial layer. / Apilo, Pälvi (Corresponding Author); Hiltunen, Jussi; Välimäki, Marja; Heinilehto, S.; Sliz, R.; Hast, Jukka.

In: Progress in Photovoltaics, Vol. 23, No. 7, 2014, p. 918-928.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Roll-to-roll gravure printing of organic photovoltaic modules-insulation of processing defects by an interfacial layer

AU - Apilo, Pälvi

AU - Hiltunen, Jussi

AU - Välimäki, Marja

AU - Heinilehto, S.

AU - Sliz, R.

AU - Hast, Jukka

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Gravure printing as direct patterning roll-to-roll (R2R) production technology can revolutionize the design of thin-film organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices by allowing feasible manufacturing of arbitrary-shaped modules. This makes a distinction to coating methods, such as slot die coating, in which the pattern is limited to continuous stripes. Here, we analyze the thin-film formation and its influence on OPV module performance as the gravure printing of hole transport and photoactive layers are transferred from laboratory to R2R pilot production environment. Insertion of a 0.8-nm layer of lithium fluoride (LiF) as an interfacial layer between the active layer and the electron contact provided insulation against the detrimental pinholes formed in the R2R printing process. Using this device configuration, we produced well-performing R2Rprinted monolithic modules with a mean efficiency of 1.7%. In comparison, reference modules with an efficiency of 2.2% were fabricated using laboratory-scale bench top sheet-level process. Surface energy and tension measurements together with optical microscopy were used to analyze the printability of the materials. The pinhole insulation was investigated in detail by processing R2R-printed OPV modules with different interfacial layer materials and performing electrical measurements under dark and AM1.5 illumination conditions. Furthermore, we analyzed the LiF distribution using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The insulating nature of the LiF layer to improve module performance was confirmed by manufacturing lithographically artificial pinholes in device structures. The results show the possibility to loosen the production environment constraints and the feasibility of fabricating well-performing thin-film devices by R2R gravure printing.

AB - Gravure printing as direct patterning roll-to-roll (R2R) production technology can revolutionize the design of thin-film organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices by allowing feasible manufacturing of arbitrary-shaped modules. This makes a distinction to coating methods, such as slot die coating, in which the pattern is limited to continuous stripes. Here, we analyze the thin-film formation and its influence on OPV module performance as the gravure printing of hole transport and photoactive layers are transferred from laboratory to R2R pilot production environment. Insertion of a 0.8-nm layer of lithium fluoride (LiF) as an interfacial layer between the active layer and the electron contact provided insulation against the detrimental pinholes formed in the R2R printing process. Using this device configuration, we produced well-performing R2Rprinted monolithic modules with a mean efficiency of 1.7%. In comparison, reference modules with an efficiency of 2.2% were fabricated using laboratory-scale bench top sheet-level process. Surface energy and tension measurements together with optical microscopy were used to analyze the printability of the materials. The pinhole insulation was investigated in detail by processing R2R-printed OPV modules with different interfacial layer materials and performing electrical measurements under dark and AM1.5 illumination conditions. Furthermore, we analyzed the LiF distribution using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The insulating nature of the LiF layer to improve module performance was confirmed by manufacturing lithographically artificial pinholes in device structures. The results show the possibility to loosen the production environment constraints and the feasibility of fabricating well-performing thin-film devices by R2R gravure printing.

KW - organic photovoltaics

KW - roll-to-roll

KW - gravure printing

KW - flexible electronics

KW - thin films

KW - low cost

U2 - 10.1002/pip.2508

DO - 10.1002/pip.2508

M3 - Article

VL - 23

SP - 918

EP - 928

JO - Progress in Photovoltaics

JF - Progress in Photovoltaics

SN - 1062-7995

IS - 7

ER -