Ru3(CO)12 and 2,2′-bipyridine were supported on various inorganic carriers and used as hydroformylation catalysts. The stability of the catalyst was studied by determining ruthenium contents of hydroformylation products and also by special dissolution tests. Ruthenium was found to dissolve in hydroformylation products (aldehydes and alcohols). However, the nature of the catalyst proved to be mainly heterogeneous.
Alvila, L., Pursiainen, J., Kiviaho, J., Tapani, P., & Krause, O. (1994). Ru3(CO)12/2,2'-bipyrine supported on inorganic carriers as 1-hexene hydroformylation catalysts. Journal of Molecular Catalysis, 91(3), 335-342. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-5102(94)00044-1