Rye bread decreases serum total and LDL cholesterol in men with moderately elevated serum cholesterol

Katri Leinonen (Corresponding Author), Kaisa Poutanen, Hannu Mykkänen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

100 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the hypocholesterolemic effects of whole meal rye and white wheat breads in healthy humans with elevated serum cholesterol concentrations, and the changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during rye and wheat bread periods. The subjects were 18 men and 22 women with baseline serum cholesterol concentration of 6.4 ± 0.2 mmol/L. The study design was a 2 × 4-wk crossover trial during which each subject randomly consumed rye and wheat breads (20% of daily energy) as part of their usual diet for 4 wk. The bread periods were separated by a 4-wk washout period. Blood samples (after fasting) were collected on two consecutive days at the beginning and end of the bread periods. Serum total cholesterol decreased by 8% (P = 0.002) in men but was not significantly altered in women during the rye bread period. The wheat bread period did not affect any of the variables studied. Analysis of the serum lipids in tertiles of rye bread consumption confirmed the reduction in total cholesterol (P = 0.048) in men and revealed the reduction in LDL cholesterol (P = 0.032); both were dependent on the amount of rye bread consumed (−2, −14 and −10% in total cholesterol and 0, −12 and −12% in LDL cholesterol). Neither rye nor wheat bread influenced the concentrations of glucose and insulin. In conclusion, rye bread is effective in reducing serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in men with elevated serum cholesterol. Good compliance with consuming a relatively large amount of rye bread in the usual diet indicates that rye bread offers a practical dietary means of reducing serum cholesterol in men.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)164 - 170
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume130
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2000
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Bread
Hypercholesterolemia
LDL Cholesterol
Serum
Triticum
Cholesterol
low density lipoprotein inhibitor
Secale
Insulin
Diet
Glucose
Cross-Over Studies
Meals
Fasting

Cite this

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title = "Rye bread decreases serum total and LDL cholesterol in men with moderately elevated serum cholesterol",
abstract = "The objective of this study was to determine the hypocholesterolemic effects of whole meal rye and white wheat breads in healthy humans with elevated serum cholesterol concentrations, and the changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during rye and wheat bread periods. The subjects were 18 men and 22 women with baseline serum cholesterol concentration of 6.4 ± 0.2 mmol/L. The study design was a 2 × 4-wk crossover trial during which each subject randomly consumed rye and wheat breads (20{\%} of daily energy) as part of their usual diet for 4 wk. The bread periods were separated by a 4-wk washout period. Blood samples (after fasting) were collected on two consecutive days at the beginning and end of the bread periods. Serum total cholesterol decreased by 8{\%} (P = 0.002) in men but was not significantly altered in women during the rye bread period. The wheat bread period did not affect any of the variables studied. Analysis of the serum lipids in tertiles of rye bread consumption confirmed the reduction in total cholesterol (P = 0.048) in men and revealed the reduction in LDL cholesterol (P = 0.032); both were dependent on the amount of rye bread consumed (−2, −14 and −10{\%} in total cholesterol and 0, −12 and −12{\%} in LDL cholesterol). Neither rye nor wheat bread influenced the concentrations of glucose and insulin. In conclusion, rye bread is effective in reducing serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in men with elevated serum cholesterol. Good compliance with consuming a relatively large amount of rye bread in the usual diet indicates that rye bread offers a practical dietary means of reducing serum cholesterol in men.",
author = "Katri Leinonen and Kaisa Poutanen and Hannu Mykk{\"a}nen",
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Rye bread decreases serum total and LDL cholesterol in men with moderately elevated serum cholesterol. / Leinonen, Katri (Corresponding Author); Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu.

In: Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 130, No. 2, 2000, p. 164 - 170.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Rye bread decreases serum total and LDL cholesterol in men with moderately elevated serum cholesterol

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AU - Poutanen, Kaisa

AU - Mykkänen, Hannu

PY - 2000

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N2 - The objective of this study was to determine the hypocholesterolemic effects of whole meal rye and white wheat breads in healthy humans with elevated serum cholesterol concentrations, and the changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during rye and wheat bread periods. The subjects were 18 men and 22 women with baseline serum cholesterol concentration of 6.4 ± 0.2 mmol/L. The study design was a 2 × 4-wk crossover trial during which each subject randomly consumed rye and wheat breads (20% of daily energy) as part of their usual diet for 4 wk. The bread periods were separated by a 4-wk washout period. Blood samples (after fasting) were collected on two consecutive days at the beginning and end of the bread periods. Serum total cholesterol decreased by 8% (P = 0.002) in men but was not significantly altered in women during the rye bread period. The wheat bread period did not affect any of the variables studied. Analysis of the serum lipids in tertiles of rye bread consumption confirmed the reduction in total cholesterol (P = 0.048) in men and revealed the reduction in LDL cholesterol (P = 0.032); both were dependent on the amount of rye bread consumed (−2, −14 and −10% in total cholesterol and 0, −12 and −12% in LDL cholesterol). Neither rye nor wheat bread influenced the concentrations of glucose and insulin. In conclusion, rye bread is effective in reducing serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in men with elevated serum cholesterol. Good compliance with consuming a relatively large amount of rye bread in the usual diet indicates that rye bread offers a practical dietary means of reducing serum cholesterol in men.

AB - The objective of this study was to determine the hypocholesterolemic effects of whole meal rye and white wheat breads in healthy humans with elevated serum cholesterol concentrations, and the changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during rye and wheat bread periods. The subjects were 18 men and 22 women with baseline serum cholesterol concentration of 6.4 ± 0.2 mmol/L. The study design was a 2 × 4-wk crossover trial during which each subject randomly consumed rye and wheat breads (20% of daily energy) as part of their usual diet for 4 wk. The bread periods were separated by a 4-wk washout period. Blood samples (after fasting) were collected on two consecutive days at the beginning and end of the bread periods. Serum total cholesterol decreased by 8% (P = 0.002) in men but was not significantly altered in women during the rye bread period. The wheat bread period did not affect any of the variables studied. Analysis of the serum lipids in tertiles of rye bread consumption confirmed the reduction in total cholesterol (P = 0.048) in men and revealed the reduction in LDL cholesterol (P = 0.032); both were dependent on the amount of rye bread consumed (−2, −14 and −10% in total cholesterol and 0, −12 and −12% in LDL cholesterol). Neither rye nor wheat bread influenced the concentrations of glucose and insulin. In conclusion, rye bread is effective in reducing serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in men with elevated serum cholesterol. Good compliance with consuming a relatively large amount of rye bread in the usual diet indicates that rye bread offers a practical dietary means of reducing serum cholesterol in men.

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