The design of an automated manufacturing system is a complicated, multidisciplinary task that requires involvement of several specialists. In Europe, manufacturing systems must also comply with the harmonized requirements of the European Machinery Directive and the associated standards. A design procedure that facilitates the safety and ergonomic considerations of an automated manufacturing system, and three case studies concerning the use of the procedure, are described. The procedure consists of the following major steps: Data collection, creation of a computerized, three-dimensional simulation model, safety analysis and risk assessment, creation of safety solutions, evaluation of the solutions, selection of the preferred solutions, reporting, and training. When improving the safety of an existing system the three-dimensional simulation model enhances the communications regarding safety analysis and the evaluation of safety solutions. The three-dimensional simulation model helps the designer to perceive the work from operators' point of view objectively and safely without the exposure to the hazards of the actual system.
Järvinen, J., Kuivanen, R., & Viitaniemi, J. (1996). Safety design by using three-dimensional simulation models. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 17(4), 343-350. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-8141(95)00059-3