Safety risk sources of autonomous mobile machines

Timo Malm (Corresponding Author), Risto Tiusanen, Eetu Heikkilä, Janne Sarsama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
51 Downloads (Pure)


Autonomous mobile machines are applied increasingly often in outdoor applications, but only in places, where logistic problems and safety issues are resolvable. Solving safety issues require good hazard identification and risk estimation. The aim of this study is to show which new risks emerge in autonomous mobile machines compared to manual machines. There are new risks, which are valid only in autonomous mobile machines (e.g., related to sensors for situational awareness), and risks, which exist in both machine types, but human presence can make the difference in resolving the situation. Humans can take sophisticated protective measures during an unexpected hazardous situation. Another aim of this work is to give information to designers and assessors to consider risks of their own design. Autonomous mobile machines are complex, and their performance is not always easily predictable. A checklist of risks would help an assessor, but currently, it may be difficult to find a checklist for a specific autonomous mobile machine. The main result of this study is a checklist of new risk sources or hazards of autonomous mobile machines.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)977-990
Number of pages14
JournalOpen Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 12 Dec 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • safety
  • hazard
  • risk source
  • risk
  • mobile machine
  • autonomous


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