Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules

T.R. Andersen, H.F. Dam, M. Hösel, M. Helgesen, J.E. Carle, T.T. Larsen-Olsen, S.A. Gevorgyan, J.W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. achui, G.D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O.R. LozmanSirpa Nordman, Marja Välimäki, Marja Vilkman, R.R. Søndergaard, M. Jørgensen, C.J. Brabec, F.C. Krebs

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164 Citations (Scopus)


Inline printing and coating methods have been demonstrated to enable a high technical yield of fully roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cell modules. We demonstrate generality by employing different material sets and also describe how the ink systems must be carefully co-developed in order to reach the ambitious objective of a fully printed and coated 14-layer flexible tandem solar cell stack. The roll-to-roll methodologies involved are flexographic printing, rotary screen printing, slot-die coating, X-ray scattering, electrical testing and UV-lamination. Their combination enables the manufacture of completely functional devices in exceptionally high yields. Critical to the ink and process development is a carefully chosen technology transfer to industry method where first a roll coater is employed enabling contactless stack build up, followed by a small roll-to-roll coater fitted to an X-ray machine enabling in situ studies of wet ink deposition and drying mechanisms, ultimately elucidating how a robust inline processed recombination layer is key to a high technical yield. Finally, the transfer to full roll-to-roll processing is demonstrated
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2925-2933
Number of pages9
JournalEnergy and Environmental Science
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Cite this

Andersen, T. R., Dam, H. F., Hösel, M., Helgesen, M., Carle, J. E., Larsen-Olsen, T. T., Gevorgyan, S. A., Andreasen, J. W., Adams, J., Li, N., achui, F., Spyropoulos, G. D., Ameri, T., Lemaitre, N., Legros, M., Scheel, A., Gaiser, D., Kreul, K., Berny, S., ... Krebs, F. C. (2014). Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules. Energy and Environmental Science, 7(9), 2925-2933.