Scale-up study on combustibility and emission formation with two biomass fuels (B quality wood and pepper plant residue) under BFB conditions

A. A. Khan (Corresponding Author), Martti Aho, W. de Jong, Pasi Vainikka, P. J. Jansens, H. Spliethoff

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Combustion of two biomass fuels: demolition wood (DW) and pepper plant residue (PPR), was investigated from an emission viewpoint in a 20 kWth fluidized bubbling bed reactor and a 1 MWth fluidized bubbling bed test boiler. Fluidization velocity and boiler output were varied in the larger facility whereas they were kept constant in the smaller reactor. Traditional flue gases were analyzed. In addition, impactor measurements were carried out to determine the mass flow of the finest fly ash and toxic elements. These measurements were compared with EU emission directives for biomass co-incineration. It was possible to combust DW without operational problems. However, the DW was contaminated with lead, which tended to get strongly enriched in the fine fly ash. Pb tends to be adsorbed on the measurement line surfaces stronger than many other toxic elements and therefore proved difficult to collect and measure. Enrichment of Pb in the fine fly ash can be weakened by co-firing DW with PPR. Increasing the share of PPR up to 50% markedly reduces the toxic metal concentration in the finest fly ash. This, however, leads to increased mass flow of fine fly ash and increases the potential risks of operational problems such as bed agglomeration and fouling.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1311-1321
Number of pages11
JournalBiomass and Bioenergy
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2008
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



  • Biomass
  • Capsicum annuum
  • Fluidized bed
  • Heavy metals
  • Particulates
  • Toxic emissions

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