Scientific diving techniques in restricted overhead environments

Giorgio Caramanna, Pirkko Kekäläinen, Jouni Leinikki, Mercedes Maroto-Valer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Scientific diving is an extremely useful tool for supporting research in environments with restricted access, where remotely operated or autonomous underwater vehicles cannot be used. However, these environments tend to be close to the surface and require the application of advanced diving techniques to ensure that the research is conducted within acceptable safety parameters. The two main techniques discussed are under-ice and cave diving; for each environment the specific hazards are reviewed and methods for mitigating the concomitant risks are detailed. It is concluded that scientific diving operations in these environments can be conducted to acceptable risk levels; however, risk management strategies must outline precisely when and where diving operations are to be prohibited or terminated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-19
Number of pages7
JournalUnderwater Technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2012
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


  • Diving techniques
  • Hazardous environments
  • Restricted overhead environments
  • Scientific diving


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