Seasonal variation in the toxicological properties of size-segregated indoor and outdoor air particulate matter

Mikko Happo (Corresponding Author), Ari Markkanen, Piia Markkanen, Pasi Jalava, Kari Kuuspalo, Ari Leskinen, Olli Sippula, Kari Lehtinen, Jorma Jokiniemi, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ambient air particulate matter (PM) as well as microbial contaminants in the indoor air are known to cause severe adverse health effects. It has been shown that there is a clear seasonal variation in the potency of outdoor air particles to evoke inflammation and cytotoxicity. However, the role of outdoor sources in the indoor air quality, especially on its toxicological properties, remains largely unknown. In this study, we collected size segregated (PM10–2.5, PM2.5–0.2 and PM0.2) particulate samples with a high volume cascade impactor (HVCI) on polyurethane foam and fluoropore membrane filters. The samples were collected during four different seasons simultaneously from indoor and outdoor air. Thereafter, the samples were weighed and extracted with methanol from the filters before undergoing toxicological analyses. Mouse macrophages (RAW264.7) were exposed to particulate sample doses of 50, 150 and 300 μg/ml for 24 h. Thereafter, the levels of the proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α), NO-production, cytotoxicity (MTT-test) and changes in the cell cycle (SubG1, G1, S and G2/M phases) were investigated. PM10–2.5 particles evoked the highest inflammatory and cytotoxic responses. Instead, PM2.5–0.2 samples exerted the greatest effect on apoptotic activity in the macrophages. With respect to the outdoor air samples, particles collected during warm seasons had a stronger potency to induce inflammatory and cytotoxic responses, whereas no such clear effect was seen with the corresponding indoor air samples. Outdoor air samples were associated with higher inflammatory potential, whereas indoor air samples had overall higher cytotoxic properties. This indicates that the outdoor air has a limited influence on the indoor air quality in a modern house. Thus, the indoor sources dominate the toxicological responses obtained from samples collected inside house.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1550-1561
JournalToxicology in Vitro
Volume27
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Particulate Matter
Toxicology
Air
Indoor Air Pollution
Macrophages
Cytotoxicity
Air quality
G2 Phase
Cell Division
Methanol
Cell Cycle
Cells
Health
Impurities
Cytokines
Inflammation
Membranes

Keywords

  • ambient air PM
  • cytotoxicity
  • infoor air PM
  • inflammation
  • microbes
  • particulate matter

Cite this

Happo, M., Markkanen, A., Markkanen, P., Jalava, P., Kuuspalo, K., Leskinen, A., ... Hirvonen, M-R. (2013). Seasonal variation in the toxicological properties of size-segregated indoor and outdoor air particulate matter. Toxicology in Vitro, 27(5), 1550-1561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2013.04.001
Happo, Mikko ; Markkanen, Ari ; Markkanen, Piia ; Jalava, Pasi ; Kuuspalo, Kari ; Leskinen, Ari ; Sippula, Olli ; Lehtinen, Kari ; Jokiniemi, Jorma ; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta. / Seasonal variation in the toxicological properties of size-segregated indoor and outdoor air particulate matter. In: Toxicology in Vitro. 2013 ; Vol. 27, No. 5. pp. 1550-1561.
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abstract = "Ambient air particulate matter (PM) as well as microbial contaminants in the indoor air are known to cause severe adverse health effects. It has been shown that there is a clear seasonal variation in the potency of outdoor air particles to evoke inflammation and cytotoxicity. However, the role of outdoor sources in the indoor air quality, especially on its toxicological properties, remains largely unknown. In this study, we collected size segregated (PM10–2.5, PM2.5–0.2 and PM0.2) particulate samples with a high volume cascade impactor (HVCI) on polyurethane foam and fluoropore membrane filters. The samples were collected during four different seasons simultaneously from indoor and outdoor air. Thereafter, the samples were weighed and extracted with methanol from the filters before undergoing toxicological analyses. Mouse macrophages (RAW264.7) were exposed to particulate sample doses of 50, 150 and 300 μg/ml for 24 h. Thereafter, the levels of the proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α), NO-production, cytotoxicity (MTT-test) and changes in the cell cycle (SubG1, G1, S and G2/M phases) were investigated. PM10–2.5 particles evoked the highest inflammatory and cytotoxic responses. Instead, PM2.5–0.2 samples exerted the greatest effect on apoptotic activity in the macrophages. With respect to the outdoor air samples, particles collected during warm seasons had a stronger potency to induce inflammatory and cytotoxic responses, whereas no such clear effect was seen with the corresponding indoor air samples. Outdoor air samples were associated with higher inflammatory potential, whereas indoor air samples had overall higher cytotoxic properties. This indicates that the outdoor air has a limited influence on the indoor air quality in a modern house. Thus, the indoor sources dominate the toxicological responses obtained from samples collected inside house.",
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Happo, M, Markkanen, A, Markkanen, P, Jalava, P, Kuuspalo, K, Leskinen, A, Sippula, O, Lehtinen, K, Jokiniemi, J & Hirvonen, M-R 2013, 'Seasonal variation in the toxicological properties of size-segregated indoor and outdoor air particulate matter', Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1550-1561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2013.04.001

Seasonal variation in the toxicological properties of size-segregated indoor and outdoor air particulate matter. / Happo, Mikko (Corresponding Author); Markkanen, Ari; Markkanen, Piia; Jalava, Pasi; Kuuspalo, Kari; Leskinen, Ari; Sippula, Olli; Lehtinen, Kari; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta.

In: Toxicology in Vitro, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2013, p. 1550-1561.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Seasonal variation in the toxicological properties of size-segregated indoor and outdoor air particulate matter

AU - Happo, Mikko

AU - Markkanen, Ari

AU - Markkanen, Piia

AU - Jalava, Pasi

AU - Kuuspalo, Kari

AU - Leskinen, Ari

AU - Sippula, Olli

AU - Lehtinen, Kari

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

AU - Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

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N2 - Ambient air particulate matter (PM) as well as microbial contaminants in the indoor air are known to cause severe adverse health effects. It has been shown that there is a clear seasonal variation in the potency of outdoor air particles to evoke inflammation and cytotoxicity. However, the role of outdoor sources in the indoor air quality, especially on its toxicological properties, remains largely unknown. In this study, we collected size segregated (PM10–2.5, PM2.5–0.2 and PM0.2) particulate samples with a high volume cascade impactor (HVCI) on polyurethane foam and fluoropore membrane filters. The samples were collected during four different seasons simultaneously from indoor and outdoor air. Thereafter, the samples were weighed and extracted with methanol from the filters before undergoing toxicological analyses. Mouse macrophages (RAW264.7) were exposed to particulate sample doses of 50, 150 and 300 μg/ml for 24 h. Thereafter, the levels of the proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α), NO-production, cytotoxicity (MTT-test) and changes in the cell cycle (SubG1, G1, S and G2/M phases) were investigated. PM10–2.5 particles evoked the highest inflammatory and cytotoxic responses. Instead, PM2.5–0.2 samples exerted the greatest effect on apoptotic activity in the macrophages. With respect to the outdoor air samples, particles collected during warm seasons had a stronger potency to induce inflammatory and cytotoxic responses, whereas no such clear effect was seen with the corresponding indoor air samples. Outdoor air samples were associated with higher inflammatory potential, whereas indoor air samples had overall higher cytotoxic properties. This indicates that the outdoor air has a limited influence on the indoor air quality in a modern house. Thus, the indoor sources dominate the toxicological responses obtained from samples collected inside house.

AB - Ambient air particulate matter (PM) as well as microbial contaminants in the indoor air are known to cause severe adverse health effects. It has been shown that there is a clear seasonal variation in the potency of outdoor air particles to evoke inflammation and cytotoxicity. However, the role of outdoor sources in the indoor air quality, especially on its toxicological properties, remains largely unknown. In this study, we collected size segregated (PM10–2.5, PM2.5–0.2 and PM0.2) particulate samples with a high volume cascade impactor (HVCI) on polyurethane foam and fluoropore membrane filters. The samples were collected during four different seasons simultaneously from indoor and outdoor air. Thereafter, the samples were weighed and extracted with methanol from the filters before undergoing toxicological analyses. Mouse macrophages (RAW264.7) were exposed to particulate sample doses of 50, 150 and 300 μg/ml for 24 h. Thereafter, the levels of the proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α), NO-production, cytotoxicity (MTT-test) and changes in the cell cycle (SubG1, G1, S and G2/M phases) were investigated. PM10–2.5 particles evoked the highest inflammatory and cytotoxic responses. Instead, PM2.5–0.2 samples exerted the greatest effect on apoptotic activity in the macrophages. With respect to the outdoor air samples, particles collected during warm seasons had a stronger potency to induce inflammatory and cytotoxic responses, whereas no such clear effect was seen with the corresponding indoor air samples. Outdoor air samples were associated with higher inflammatory potential, whereas indoor air samples had overall higher cytotoxic properties. This indicates that the outdoor air has a limited influence on the indoor air quality in a modern house. Thus, the indoor sources dominate the toxicological responses obtained from samples collected inside house.

KW - ambient air PM

KW - cytotoxicity

KW - infoor air PM

KW - inflammation

KW - microbes

KW - particulate matter

U2 - 10.1016/j.tiv.2013.04.001

DO - 10.1016/j.tiv.2013.04.001

M3 - Article

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EP - 1561

JO - Toxicology in Vitro

JF - Toxicology in Vitro

SN - 0887-2333

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