Secondary steel mill slags with pulp and paper mill solid residues for soil amendment: Mineralogy, relevant physicochemical properties and trace element availability

Mikko Mäkelä, Hannu Nurmesniemi, Gary Watkins, Risto Pöykiö, Olli Dahl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Inter-industrial utilisation of solid residues for soil amendment was investigated by combining secondary steel mill slags with residuals from a pulp and paper mill. Sample analysis included mineralogical characterisation by X-ray diffraction, relevant physicochemical properties and trace element availability by the original three-stage sequential BCR extraction procedure (CH 3COOH, NH2OH·HCl and H2O2 + CH3COONH4) and residual fraction determination by acid digestion (USEPA 3051A). Respectively, the pseudo-total concentrations of trace elements were determined according to USEPA method 3051A. Consequently, the alkalinity of the samples (pH values 12.1-12.2) suggests significant buffering and acid neutralisation capacity with liming effect values (34.9%-35.6%, Ca-equivalents, d.w.) comparable to commercial ground limestone. This was supported by XRD, which only revealed the existence of portlandite [Ca(OH) 2] an calcite [CaCO3]. Additionally, the pseudo-total concentrations of trace elements were lower than the respective limit values for EU soil improvers (2006/799/EC). However, Ba and V recovery during sequential extraction (Ba: 40.1-56.0 mg·kg-1, d.w., by CH 3COOH; and V: 72.2-96.5 mg·kg-1, d.w., by NH 2OH·HCl) indicates potential phytoavailability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation
Volume3
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Availability
  • Materials engineering
  • Process industry
  • Sequential extraction
  • Soil amendment
  • Solid residue
  • Trace element

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