Security of Satellite-Terrestrial Communications: Challenges and Potential Solutions

Ijaz Ahmad (Corresponding Author), Jani Suomalainen, Pawani Porambage, Andrei Gurtov, Jyrki Huusko, Marko Hoyhtya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The integration of satellite and terrestrial networks has become inevitable in the next generations of communications networks due to emerging needs of ubiquitous connectivity of remote locations. New and existing services and critical infrastructures in remote locations in sea, on land and in space will be seamlessly connected through a diverse set of terrestrial and non-terrestrial communication technologies. However, the integration of terrestrial and non-terrestrial systems will open up both systems to unique security challenges that can arise due to the migration of security challenges from one to another. Similarly, security challenges can also arise due to the incompatibility of distinct systems or incoherence of security policies. The resulting security implications, thus, can be highly consequential due to the criticality of the infrastructures such as space stations, autonomous ships, and airplanes, for instance. Therefore, in this article we study existing security challenges in satellite-terrestrial communication systems and discuss potential solutions for those challenges. Furthermore, we provide important research directions to encourage future research on existing security gaps.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)96038-96052
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 8 Sept 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • 3GPP
  • 5G mobile communication
  • Base stations
  • Communications Security
  • Network Security
  • NTN Security
  • Satellite
  • Satellite broadcasting
  • Satellite Security
  • Satellites
  • Security
  • Space vehicles
  • network security
  • NTN security
  • satellite
  • satellite security
  • communications security


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