Selective catalytic reduction operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle emissions

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To meet stringent NOx emission limits, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340°C NOx reduction was 85-90%, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle emissions (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle emissions, which are a growing concern.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4735-4741
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume49
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Fuel Oils
Residual fuels
Selective catalytic reduction
Sulfur
Ships
Metals
catalyst
sulfur
Temperature
Catalysts
Ammonia
Particle size analysis
Oxides
Sulfates
Urea
fuel oil
particle
Hydrolysis
urea
hydrolysis

Keywords

  • airships
  • catalysts
  • fuel oils
  • fuels
  • oil shale
  • particle size
  • particle size analysis
  • reduction
  • ships
  • sulfur
  • temperature
  • urea
  • xhaust temperature
  • hydrolysis reaction
  • low temperature behavior
  • lower temperatures
  • metal oxide particles
  • particle emissions
  • particle measurement
  • urea decomposition

Cite this

@article{a39bec8de749401488bd998efc18f353,
title = "Selective catalytic reduction operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle emissions",
abstract = "To meet stringent NOx emission limits, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340°C NOx reduction was 85-90{\%}, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle emissions (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle emissions, which are a growing concern.",
keywords = "airships, catalysts, fuel oils, fuels, oil shale, particle size, particle size analysis, reduction, ships, sulfur, temperature, urea, xhaust temperature, hydrolysis reaction, low temperature behavior, lower temperatures, metal oxide particles, particle emissions, particle measurement, urea decomposition",
author = "Kati Lehtoranta and Hannu Vesala and P{\"a}ivi Koponen and Satu Korhonen",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1021/es506185x",
language = "English",
volume = "49",
pages = "4735--4741",
journal = "Environmental Science & Technology",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society ACS",
number = "7",

}

Selective catalytic reduction operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle emissions. / Lehtoranta, Kati; Vesala, Hannu; Koponen, Päivi; Korhonen, Satu.

In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 49, No. 7, 2015, p. 4735-4741.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Selective catalytic reduction operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle emissions

AU - Lehtoranta, Kati

AU - Vesala, Hannu

AU - Koponen, Päivi

AU - Korhonen, Satu

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - To meet stringent NOx emission limits, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340°C NOx reduction was 85-90%, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle emissions (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle emissions, which are a growing concern.

AB - To meet stringent NOx emission limits, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340°C NOx reduction was 85-90%, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle emissions (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle emissions, which are a growing concern.

KW - airships

KW - catalysts

KW - fuel oils

KW - fuels

KW - oil shale

KW - particle size

KW - particle size analysis

KW - reduction

KW - ships

KW - sulfur

KW - temperature

KW - urea

KW - xhaust temperature

KW - hydrolysis reaction

KW - low temperature behavior

KW - lower temperatures

KW - metal oxide particles

KW - particle emissions

KW - particle measurement

KW - urea decomposition

U2 - 10.1021/es506185x

DO - 10.1021/es506185x

M3 - Article

VL - 49

SP - 4735

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JO - Environmental Science & Technology

JF - Environmental Science & Technology

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ER -