Selective catalytic reduction operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle emissions

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    19 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    To meet stringent NOx emission limits, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340°C NOx reduction was 85-90%, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle emissions (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle emissions, which are a growing concern.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)4735-4741
    JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
    Volume49
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2015
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Fuel Oils
    Residual fuels
    Selective catalytic reduction
    Sulfur
    Ships
    Metals
    catalyst
    sulfur
    Temperature
    Catalysts
    Ammonia
    Particle size analysis
    Oxides
    Sulfates
    Urea
    fuel oil
    particle
    Hydrolysis
    urea
    hydrolysis

    Keywords

    • airships
    • catalysts
    • fuel oils
    • fuels
    • oil shale
    • particle size
    • particle size analysis
    • reduction
    • ships
    • sulfur
    • temperature
    • urea
    • xhaust temperature
    • hydrolysis reaction
    • low temperature behavior
    • lower temperatures
    • metal oxide particles
    • particle emissions
    • particle measurement
    • urea decomposition

    Cite this

    @article{a39bec8de749401488bd998efc18f353,
    title = "Selective catalytic reduction operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle emissions",
    abstract = "To meet stringent NOx emission limits, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340°C NOx reduction was 85-90{\%}, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle emissions (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle emissions, which are a growing concern.",
    keywords = "airships, catalysts, fuel oils, fuels, oil shale, particle size, particle size analysis, reduction, ships, sulfur, temperature, urea, xhaust temperature, hydrolysis reaction, low temperature behavior, lower temperatures, metal oxide particles, particle emissions, particle measurement, urea decomposition",
    author = "Kati Lehtoranta and Hannu Vesala and P{\"a}ivi Koponen and Satu Korhonen",
    year = "2015",
    doi = "10.1021/es506185x",
    language = "English",
    volume = "49",
    pages = "4735--4741",
    journal = "Environmental Science & Technology",
    issn = "0013-936X",
    publisher = "American Chemical Society ACS",
    number = "7",

    }

    Selective catalytic reduction operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle emissions. / Lehtoranta, Kati; Vesala, Hannu; Koponen, Päivi; Korhonen, Satu.

    In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 49, No. 7, 2015, p. 4735-4741.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Selective catalytic reduction operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle emissions

    AU - Lehtoranta, Kati

    AU - Vesala, Hannu

    AU - Koponen, Päivi

    AU - Korhonen, Satu

    PY - 2015

    Y1 - 2015

    N2 - To meet stringent NOx emission limits, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340°C NOx reduction was 85-90%, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle emissions (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle emissions, which are a growing concern.

    AB - To meet stringent NOx emission limits, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340°C NOx reduction was 85-90%, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle emissions (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle emissions, which are a growing concern.

    KW - airships

    KW - catalysts

    KW - fuel oils

    KW - fuels

    KW - oil shale

    KW - particle size

    KW - particle size analysis

    KW - reduction

    KW - ships

    KW - sulfur

    KW - temperature

    KW - urea

    KW - xhaust temperature

    KW - hydrolysis reaction

    KW - low temperature behavior

    KW - lower temperatures

    KW - metal oxide particles

    KW - particle emissions

    KW - particle measurement

    KW - urea decomposition

    U2 - 10.1021/es506185x

    DO - 10.1021/es506185x

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    SN - 0013-936X

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    ER -