Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration

Erkki Vesikari, Miguel Ferreira

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

Abstract

Traditional service life design of a reinforced concrete structure is normally based on the performance of concrete when subject to a dominating degradation mechanism. However, this rarely occurs in real-life exposure where reinforced concrete structures are subject to the simultaneous effect of several degradation mechanisms. Practical experience and research results have shown that this is not a conservative approach to SLD. The combination of several degradation mechanisms can result in a shorter service life due to the possible synergetic effects which currently have not been considered in SLD. In this paper an empirical model for the combined effect of frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration is presented. Based on the results of laboratory exposure tests, the effects of frost attack on the rate of carbonation and chloride penetration as an interacted degradation were developed. In addition, a procedure for service life design based on the use of interaction factors is presented where the synergistic effect of both internal frost attack and frost scaling on carbonation and chloride penetration are considered. Results showed that, if frost attack is rapid, it is usually the dominating degradation mechanism, marginalising reinforcement corrosion initiated by carbonation or chloride penetration. If frost attack proceeds slowly, reinforcement corrosion can become dominant and the interaction effects should be considered in the service life design of reinforced concrete.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationV International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Composition to Service Life Design
EditorsRui Miguel Ferreira, Joost Gulikers, Carmen Andrade
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Pages142-161
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-7900-6
ISBN (Print)978-951-38-7899-3
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeB3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings

Publication series

SeriesVTT Technology
Number65
ISSN2242-1211

Fingerprint

Carbonation
Service life
Concretes
Degradation
Reinforced concrete
Concrete construction
Reinforcement
Corrosion

Cite this

Vesikari, E., & Ferreira, M. (2012). Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration. In R. M. Ferreira, J. Gulikers, & C. Andrade (Eds.), V International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete: From Composition to Service Life Design (pp. 142-161). Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Technology, No. 65
Vesikari, Erkki ; Ferreira, Miguel. / Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration. V International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete: From Composition to Service Life Design. editor / Rui Miguel Ferreira ; Joost Gulikers ; Carmen Andrade. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2012. pp. 142-161 (VTT Technology; No. 65).
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Vesikari, E & Ferreira, M 2012, Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration. in RM Ferreira, J Gulikers & C Andrade (eds), V International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete: From Composition to Service Life Design. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, VTT Technology, no. 65, pp. 142-161.

Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration. / Vesikari, Erkki; Ferreira, Miguel.

V International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete: From Composition to Service Life Design. ed. / Rui Miguel Ferreira; Joost Gulikers; Carmen Andrade. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2012. p. 142-161 (VTT Technology; No. 65).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

TY - GEN

T1 - Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration

AU - Vesikari, Erkki

AU - Ferreira, Miguel

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Traditional service life design of a reinforced concrete structure is normally based on the performance of concrete when subject to a dominating degradation mechanism. However, this rarely occurs in real-life exposure where reinforced concrete structures are subject to the simultaneous effect of several degradation mechanisms. Practical experience and research results have shown that this is not a conservative approach to SLD. The combination of several degradation mechanisms can result in a shorter service life due to the possible synergetic effects which currently have not been considered in SLD. In this paper an empirical model for the combined effect of frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration is presented. Based on the results of laboratory exposure tests, the effects of frost attack on the rate of carbonation and chloride penetration as an interacted degradation were developed. In addition, a procedure for service life design based on the use of interaction factors is presented where the synergistic effect of both internal frost attack and frost scaling on carbonation and chloride penetration are considered. Results showed that, if frost attack is rapid, it is usually the dominating degradation mechanism, marginalising reinforcement corrosion initiated by carbonation or chloride penetration. If frost attack proceeds slowly, reinforcement corrosion can become dominant and the interaction effects should be considered in the service life design of reinforced concrete.

AB - Traditional service life design of a reinforced concrete structure is normally based on the performance of concrete when subject to a dominating degradation mechanism. However, this rarely occurs in real-life exposure where reinforced concrete structures are subject to the simultaneous effect of several degradation mechanisms. Practical experience and research results have shown that this is not a conservative approach to SLD. The combination of several degradation mechanisms can result in a shorter service life due to the possible synergetic effects which currently have not been considered in SLD. In this paper an empirical model for the combined effect of frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration is presented. Based on the results of laboratory exposure tests, the effects of frost attack on the rate of carbonation and chloride penetration as an interacted degradation were developed. In addition, a procedure for service life design based on the use of interaction factors is presented where the synergistic effect of both internal frost attack and frost scaling on carbonation and chloride penetration are considered. Results showed that, if frost attack is rapid, it is usually the dominating degradation mechanism, marginalising reinforcement corrosion initiated by carbonation or chloride penetration. If frost attack proceeds slowly, reinforcement corrosion can become dominant and the interaction effects should be considered in the service life design of reinforced concrete.

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

SN - 978-951-38-7899-3

T3 - VTT Technology

SP - 142

EP - 161

BT - V International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete

A2 - Ferreira, Rui Miguel

A2 - Gulikers, Joost

A2 - Andrade, Carmen

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

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Vesikari E, Ferreira M. Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration. In Ferreira RM, Gulikers J, Andrade C, editors, V International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete: From Composition to Service Life Design. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. 2012. p. 142-161. (VTT Technology; No. 65).