Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration

Erkki Vesikari, Miguel Ferreira

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

    Abstract

    Traditional service life design of a reinforced concrete structure is normally based on the performance of concrete when subject to a dominating degradation mechanism. However, this rarely occurs in real-life exposure where reinforced concrete structures are subject to the simultaneous effect of several degradation mechanisms. Practical experience and research results have shown that this is not a conservative approach to SLD. The combination of several degradation mechanisms can result in a shorter service life due to the possible synergetic effects which currently have not been considered in SLD. In this paper an empirical model for the combined effect of frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration is presented. Based on the results of laboratory exposure tests, the effects of frost attack on the rate of carbonation and chloride penetration as an interacted degradation were developed. In addition, a procedure for service life design based on the use of interaction factors is presented where the synergistic effect of both internal frost attack and frost scaling on carbonation and chloride penetration are considered. Results showed that, if frost attack is rapid, it is usually the dominating degradation mechanism, marginalising reinforcement corrosion initiated by carbonation or chloride penetration. If frost attack proceeds slowly, reinforcement corrosion can become dominant and the interaction effects should be considered in the service life design of reinforced concrete.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationV International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete
    Subtitle of host publicationFrom Composition to Service Life Design
    EditorsRui Miguel Ferreira, Joost Gulikers, Carmen Andrade
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
    Pages142-161
    ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-7900-6
    ISBN (Print)978-951-38-7899-3
    Publication statusPublished - 2012
    MoE publication typeB3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings

    Publication series

    SeriesVTT Technology
    Number65
    ISSN2242-1211

    Fingerprint

    Carbonation
    Service life
    Concretes
    Degradation
    Reinforced concrete
    Concrete construction
    Reinforcement
    Corrosion

    Cite this

    Vesikari, E., & Ferreira, M. (2012). Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration. In R. M. Ferreira, J. Gulikers, & C. Andrade (Eds.), V International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete: From Composition to Service Life Design (pp. 142-161). Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Technology, No. 65
    Vesikari, Erkki ; Ferreira, Miguel. / Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration. V International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete: From Composition to Service Life Design. editor / Rui Miguel Ferreira ; Joost Gulikers ; Carmen Andrade. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2012. pp. 142-161 (VTT Technology; No. 65).
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    abstract = "Traditional service life design of a reinforced concrete structure is normally based on the performance of concrete when subject to a dominating degradation mechanism. However, this rarely occurs in real-life exposure where reinforced concrete structures are subject to the simultaneous effect of several degradation mechanisms. Practical experience and research results have shown that this is not a conservative approach to SLD. The combination of several degradation mechanisms can result in a shorter service life due to the possible synergetic effects which currently have not been considered in SLD. In this paper an empirical model for the combined effect of frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration is presented. Based on the results of laboratory exposure tests, the effects of frost attack on the rate of carbonation and chloride penetration as an interacted degradation were developed. In addition, a procedure for service life design based on the use of interaction factors is presented where the synergistic effect of both internal frost attack and frost scaling on carbonation and chloride penetration are considered. Results showed that, if frost attack is rapid, it is usually the dominating degradation mechanism, marginalising reinforcement corrosion initiated by carbonation or chloride penetration. If frost attack proceeds slowly, reinforcement corrosion can become dominant and the interaction effects should be considered in the service life design of reinforced concrete.",
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    Vesikari, E & Ferreira, M 2012, Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration. in RM Ferreira, J Gulikers & C Andrade (eds), V International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete: From Composition to Service Life Design. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, VTT Technology, no. 65, pp. 142-161.

    Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration. / Vesikari, Erkki; Ferreira, Miguel.

    V International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete: From Composition to Service Life Design. ed. / Rui Miguel Ferreira; Joost Gulikers; Carmen Andrade. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2012. p. 142-161 (VTT Technology; No. 65).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration

    AU - Vesikari, Erkki

    AU - Ferreira, Miguel

    PY - 2012

    Y1 - 2012

    N2 - Traditional service life design of a reinforced concrete structure is normally based on the performance of concrete when subject to a dominating degradation mechanism. However, this rarely occurs in real-life exposure where reinforced concrete structures are subject to the simultaneous effect of several degradation mechanisms. Practical experience and research results have shown that this is not a conservative approach to SLD. The combination of several degradation mechanisms can result in a shorter service life due to the possible synergetic effects which currently have not been considered in SLD. In this paper an empirical model for the combined effect of frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration is presented. Based on the results of laboratory exposure tests, the effects of frost attack on the rate of carbonation and chloride penetration as an interacted degradation were developed. In addition, a procedure for service life design based on the use of interaction factors is presented where the synergistic effect of both internal frost attack and frost scaling on carbonation and chloride penetration are considered. Results showed that, if frost attack is rapid, it is usually the dominating degradation mechanism, marginalising reinforcement corrosion initiated by carbonation or chloride penetration. If frost attack proceeds slowly, reinforcement corrosion can become dominant and the interaction effects should be considered in the service life design of reinforced concrete.

    AB - Traditional service life design of a reinforced concrete structure is normally based on the performance of concrete when subject to a dominating degradation mechanism. However, this rarely occurs in real-life exposure where reinforced concrete structures are subject to the simultaneous effect of several degradation mechanisms. Practical experience and research results have shown that this is not a conservative approach to SLD. The combination of several degradation mechanisms can result in a shorter service life due to the possible synergetic effects which currently have not been considered in SLD. In this paper an empirical model for the combined effect of frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration is presented. Based on the results of laboratory exposure tests, the effects of frost attack on the rate of carbonation and chloride penetration as an interacted degradation were developed. In addition, a procedure for service life design based on the use of interaction factors is presented where the synergistic effect of both internal frost attack and frost scaling on carbonation and chloride penetration are considered. Results showed that, if frost attack is rapid, it is usually the dominating degradation mechanism, marginalising reinforcement corrosion initiated by carbonation or chloride penetration. If frost attack proceeds slowly, reinforcement corrosion can become dominant and the interaction effects should be considered in the service life design of reinforced concrete.

    M3 - Conference article in proceedings

    SN - 978-951-38-7899-3

    T3 - VTT Technology

    SP - 142

    EP - 161

    BT - V International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete

    A2 - Ferreira, Rui Miguel

    A2 - Gulikers, Joost

    A2 - Andrade, Carmen

    PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

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    ER -

    Vesikari E, Ferreira M. Service life design of concrete subject to frost attack and carbonation/chloride penetration. In Ferreira RM, Gulikers J, Andrade C, editors, V International PhD Student Workshop on Durability of Reinforced Concrete: From Composition to Service Life Design. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. 2012. p. 142-161. (VTT Technology; No. 65).