Shale gas production: its trade as LNG and prospects for Finland and its industries

Veli-Pekka Heiskanen, John Yilin Wang

Research output: Book/ReportReport


Shale gas production has increased rapidly during last years because of advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Almost all shale gas is produced in the U.S. but many other countries may follow suit in following years or at least in the coming decades. The global technically recoverable shale gas resources are about 220 tcm that corresponds to 2.2 million TWh in primary energy, being almost 15 times the global annual primary energy consumption. Shale gas resources are wide-spread globally even though over 90% of the technically recoverable shale gas resources are located in 10 countries. There is continuous debate on the environmental effects of shale gas production. The discussion has been focused mainly on greenhouse gas emissions and impact on water resources, and to lesser extent on induced seismicity. New technologies are being developed to decrease consumption of water and chemicals in fracking. The increased shale gas production since 2005 has had an impact on the natural gas markets, especially in the United States. It has also led to increases in coal consumption elsewhere. Shale gas delivered as LNG may offer one alternative energy source for Finland and its industry. Several Finnish companies may benefit from increasing global shale gas and LNG use such as equipment manufacturers, contractors and subcontractors for shale gas and LNG-related projects.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages96
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-8225-9
ISBN (Print)978-951-38-8224-2
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Technology


  • shale gas
  • LNG
  • horizontal drilling
  • hydraulic fracturing
  • fracking
  • greenhouse gas emissions

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    Heiskanen, V-P., & Wang, J. Y. (2015). Shale gas production: its trade as LNG and prospects for Finland and its industries. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Technology, No. 212