Shape Control of a FRP Airfoil Structure Using SMA-actuators and Optical Fiber Sensors

Pasi Ruotsalainen, Petter Kroneld, Kalervo Nevala, Timo Brander, Tomi Lindroos, Merja Sippola

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The aim of this work was to design a control system for the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator operated airfoil (a cross section of wind turbine blade). Design of SMA control is focused on the reliable operation of the SMA actuators. The actuator should follow the targeted shape accurately and without too much delay. Another objective is to avoid overheating which is the most critical damage to the structure. SMA actuator shape control is in principle possible to do with any position control method, but the specific properties of the SMA actuators, like the hysteresis, the first cycle effect and the long term changes, need to be taken into account. In this work, a wing profile prototype was measured using optical fiber sensors and traditional strain gauges. Also, external laser sensors were used to measure displacements of upper/lower surface and trailing edge. Shape change was obtained by embedding SMA wire actuators into fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite structure. SMA actuators were laminated in such way that bending of trailing edge is always downwards. Actuators are activated with Joule heating and the temperature is measured with integrated thermocouples and optical fiber temperature sensors. As a result, this work gave information about the usability of optical fibers sensors in active FRP composite structures. Measurements also give information about the efficiency of SMA actuators in shape control of relatively stiff FRP structures.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMechatronic Systems and Materials II
EditorsInga Skiedraite, Jolanta Baskutiene
Pages196-201
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA3 Part of a book or another research book

Publication series

SeriesSolid State Phenomena
Volume144
ISSN1012-0394

Fingerprint

Fiber optic sensors
Shape memory effect
Airfoils
Actuators
Fibers
Polymers
Composite structures
Joule heating
Position control
Temperature sensors
Thermocouples
Strain gages
Wind turbines
Turbomachine blades
Hysteresis
Optical fibers
Wire
Control systems
Lasers
Sensors

Keywords

  • shape memory alloy
  • optical fiber sensors
  • shape control
  • FRP composite
  • ProperTune

Cite this

Ruotsalainen, P., Kroneld, P., Nevala, K., Brander, T., Lindroos, T., & Sippola, M. (2009). Shape Control of a FRP Airfoil Structure Using SMA-actuators and Optical Fiber Sensors. In I. Skiedraite, & J. Baskutiene (Eds.), Mechatronic Systems and Materials II (pp. 196-201). Solid State Phenomena, Vol.. 144 https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.144.196
Ruotsalainen, Pasi ; Kroneld, Petter ; Nevala, Kalervo ; Brander, Timo ; Lindroos, Tomi ; Sippola, Merja. / Shape Control of a FRP Airfoil Structure Using SMA-actuators and Optical Fiber Sensors. Mechatronic Systems and Materials II. editor / Inga Skiedraite ; Jolanta Baskutiene. 2009. pp. 196-201 (Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 144).
@inbook{a1dffcfe6f5945fcbc31c8319b5c399c,
title = "Shape Control of a FRP Airfoil Structure Using SMA-actuators and Optical Fiber Sensors",
abstract = "The aim of this work was to design a control system for the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator operated airfoil (a cross section of wind turbine blade). Design of SMA control is focused on the reliable operation of the SMA actuators. The actuator should follow the targeted shape accurately and without too much delay. Another objective is to avoid overheating which is the most critical damage to the structure. SMA actuator shape control is in principle possible to do with any position control method, but the specific properties of the SMA actuators, like the hysteresis, the first cycle effect and the long term changes, need to be taken into account. In this work, a wing profile prototype was measured using optical fiber sensors and traditional strain gauges. Also, external laser sensors were used to measure displacements of upper/lower surface and trailing edge. Shape change was obtained by embedding SMA wire actuators into fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite structure. SMA actuators were laminated in such way that bending of trailing edge is always downwards. Actuators are activated with Joule heating and the temperature is measured with integrated thermocouples and optical fiber temperature sensors. As a result, this work gave information about the usability of optical fibers sensors in active FRP composite structures. Measurements also give information about the efficiency of SMA actuators in shape control of relatively stiff FRP structures.",
keywords = "shape memory alloy, optical fiber sensors, shape control, FRP composite, ProperTune",
author = "Pasi Ruotsalainen and Petter Kroneld and Kalervo Nevala and Timo Brander and Tomi Lindroos and Merja Sippola",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.144.196",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-3-908451-60-0",
series = "Solid State Phenomena",
publisher = "Trans Tech Publications",
pages = "196--201",
editor = "Inga Skiedraite and Jolanta Baskutiene",
booktitle = "Mechatronic Systems and Materials II",

}

Ruotsalainen, P, Kroneld, P, Nevala, K, Brander, T, Lindroos, T & Sippola, M 2009, Shape Control of a FRP Airfoil Structure Using SMA-actuators and Optical Fiber Sensors. in I Skiedraite & J Baskutiene (eds), Mechatronic Systems and Materials II. Solid State Phenomena, vol. 144, pp. 196-201. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.144.196

Shape Control of a FRP Airfoil Structure Using SMA-actuators and Optical Fiber Sensors. / Ruotsalainen, Pasi; Kroneld, Petter; Nevala, Kalervo; Brander, Timo; Lindroos, Tomi; Sippola, Merja.

Mechatronic Systems and Materials II. ed. / Inga Skiedraite; Jolanta Baskutiene. 2009. p. 196-201 (Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 144).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleScientificpeer-review

TY - CHAP

T1 - Shape Control of a FRP Airfoil Structure Using SMA-actuators and Optical Fiber Sensors

AU - Ruotsalainen, Pasi

AU - Kroneld, Petter

AU - Nevala, Kalervo

AU - Brander, Timo

AU - Lindroos, Tomi

AU - Sippola, Merja

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - The aim of this work was to design a control system for the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator operated airfoil (a cross section of wind turbine blade). Design of SMA control is focused on the reliable operation of the SMA actuators. The actuator should follow the targeted shape accurately and without too much delay. Another objective is to avoid overheating which is the most critical damage to the structure. SMA actuator shape control is in principle possible to do with any position control method, but the specific properties of the SMA actuators, like the hysteresis, the first cycle effect and the long term changes, need to be taken into account. In this work, a wing profile prototype was measured using optical fiber sensors and traditional strain gauges. Also, external laser sensors were used to measure displacements of upper/lower surface and trailing edge. Shape change was obtained by embedding SMA wire actuators into fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite structure. SMA actuators were laminated in such way that bending of trailing edge is always downwards. Actuators are activated with Joule heating and the temperature is measured with integrated thermocouples and optical fiber temperature sensors. As a result, this work gave information about the usability of optical fibers sensors in active FRP composite structures. Measurements also give information about the efficiency of SMA actuators in shape control of relatively stiff FRP structures.

AB - The aim of this work was to design a control system for the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator operated airfoil (a cross section of wind turbine blade). Design of SMA control is focused on the reliable operation of the SMA actuators. The actuator should follow the targeted shape accurately and without too much delay. Another objective is to avoid overheating which is the most critical damage to the structure. SMA actuator shape control is in principle possible to do with any position control method, but the specific properties of the SMA actuators, like the hysteresis, the first cycle effect and the long term changes, need to be taken into account. In this work, a wing profile prototype was measured using optical fiber sensors and traditional strain gauges. Also, external laser sensors were used to measure displacements of upper/lower surface and trailing edge. Shape change was obtained by embedding SMA wire actuators into fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite structure. SMA actuators were laminated in such way that bending of trailing edge is always downwards. Actuators are activated with Joule heating and the temperature is measured with integrated thermocouples and optical fiber temperature sensors. As a result, this work gave information about the usability of optical fibers sensors in active FRP composite structures. Measurements also give information about the efficiency of SMA actuators in shape control of relatively stiff FRP structures.

KW - shape memory alloy

KW - optical fiber sensors

KW - shape control

KW - FRP composite

KW - ProperTune

U2 - 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.144.196

DO - 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.144.196

M3 - Chapter or book article

SN - 978-3-908451-60-0

T3 - Solid State Phenomena

SP - 196

EP - 201

BT - Mechatronic Systems and Materials II

A2 - Skiedraite, Inga

A2 - Baskutiene, Jolanta

ER -

Ruotsalainen P, Kroneld P, Nevala K, Brander T, Lindroos T, Sippola M. Shape Control of a FRP Airfoil Structure Using SMA-actuators and Optical Fiber Sensors. In Skiedraite I, Baskutiene J, editors, Mechatronic Systems and Materials II. 2009. p. 196-201. (Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 144). https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.144.196