Silicon full wafer bonding with atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide intermediate films

R. L. Puurunen (Corresponding Author), T. Suni, O. M.E. Ylivaara, H. Kondo, M. Ammar, T. Ishida, H. Fujita, A. Bosseboeuf, S. Zaima, H. Kattelus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers made by direct wafer bonding are widely used as starting substrates for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication. Adding another layer next to the SiO2 SOI, or replacing it with another material, will be a way to tailor the SOI wafers further. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to deposit pinhole-free nanometer-thin conformal and smooth inorganic films at low temperatures, making it of interest for many applications in MEMS. In this work, the direct wafer bonding of ALD TiO2, and Al2O3 for reference, is investigated, eventually in order to fabricate SOI wafers with buried ALD oxides. Finding suitable process conditions for TiO2 bonding was challenging: bonding could not be made for TiO2 deposited directly on SiO2 or Si, and annealing at 1100°C gave non-continuous Ti-containing layers. Using a 2-nm Al2O3 under-layer and annealing at 700°C gave void-free bonding with continuous TiO2 and a bond strength of approximately 1600 mJ/m2, enabling the fabrication of SOI wafers with buried TiO2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)268-276
Number of pages9
JournalSensors and Actuators A: Physical
Volume188
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed
Event16th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, Transducers’11
- Beijing, China
Duration: 5 Jun 20119 Jun 2011

Fingerprint

Wafer bonding
Aluminum Oxide
Silicon
titanium oxides
Titanium dioxide
aluminum oxides
wafers
Atomic layer deposition
Aluminum
insulators
Oxides
oxides
silicon
atomic layer epitaxy
MEMS
microelectromechanical systems
Annealing
Fabrication
fabrication
annealing

Keywords

  • Al2O3
  • ALD
  • Atomic layer deposition
  • Silicon-on-insulator
  • SOI
  • TiO2
  • Wafer bonding

Cite this

Puurunen, R. L. ; Suni, T. ; Ylivaara, O. M.E. ; Kondo, H. ; Ammar, M. ; Ishida, T. ; Fujita, H. ; Bosseboeuf, A. ; Zaima, S. ; Kattelus, H. / Silicon full wafer bonding with atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide intermediate films. In: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2012 ; Vol. 188. pp. 268-276.
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abstract = "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers made by direct wafer bonding are widely used as starting substrates for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication. Adding another layer next to the SiO2 SOI, or replacing it with another material, will be a way to tailor the SOI wafers further. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to deposit pinhole-free nanometer-thin conformal and smooth inorganic films at low temperatures, making it of interest for many applications in MEMS. In this work, the direct wafer bonding of ALD TiO2, and Al2O3 for reference, is investigated, eventually in order to fabricate SOI wafers with buried ALD oxides. Finding suitable process conditions for TiO2 bonding was challenging: bonding could not be made for TiO2 deposited directly on SiO2 or Si, and annealing at 1100°C gave non-continuous Ti-containing layers. Using a 2-nm Al2O3 under-layer and annealing at 700°C gave void-free bonding with continuous TiO2 and a bond strength of approximately 1600 mJ/m2, enabling the fabrication of SOI wafers with buried TiO2.",
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Puurunen, RL, Suni, T, Ylivaara, OME, Kondo, H, Ammar, M, Ishida, T, Fujita, H, Bosseboeuf, A, Zaima, S & Kattelus, H 2012, 'Silicon full wafer bonding with atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide intermediate films', Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 188, pp. 268-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2012.05.006

Silicon full wafer bonding with atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide intermediate films. / Puurunen, R. L. (Corresponding Author); Suni, T.; Ylivaara, O. M.E.; Kondo, H.; Ammar, M.; Ishida, T.; Fujita, H.; Bosseboeuf, A.; Zaima, S.; Kattelus, H.

In: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 188, 11.05.2012, p. 268-276.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Silicon full wafer bonding with atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide intermediate films

AU - Puurunen, R. L.

AU - Suni, T.

AU - Ylivaara, O. M.E.

AU - Kondo, H.

AU - Ammar, M.

AU - Ishida, T.

AU - Fujita, H.

AU - Bosseboeuf, A.

AU - Zaima, S.

AU - Kattelus, H.

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PY - 2012/5/11

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N2 - Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers made by direct wafer bonding are widely used as starting substrates for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication. Adding another layer next to the SiO2 SOI, or replacing it with another material, will be a way to tailor the SOI wafers further. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to deposit pinhole-free nanometer-thin conformal and smooth inorganic films at low temperatures, making it of interest for many applications in MEMS. In this work, the direct wafer bonding of ALD TiO2, and Al2O3 for reference, is investigated, eventually in order to fabricate SOI wafers with buried ALD oxides. Finding suitable process conditions for TiO2 bonding was challenging: bonding could not be made for TiO2 deposited directly on SiO2 or Si, and annealing at 1100°C gave non-continuous Ti-containing layers. Using a 2-nm Al2O3 under-layer and annealing at 700°C gave void-free bonding with continuous TiO2 and a bond strength of approximately 1600 mJ/m2, enabling the fabrication of SOI wafers with buried TiO2.

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KW - Atomic layer deposition

KW - Silicon-on-insulator

KW - SOI

KW - TiO2

KW - Wafer bonding

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DO - 10.1016/j.sna.2012.05.006

M3 - Article

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