Silicon full wafer bonding with atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide intermediate films

R. L. Puurunen (Corresponding Author), T. Suni, O. M.E. Ylivaara, H. Kondo, M. Ammar, T. Ishida, H. Fujita, A. Bosseboeuf, S. Zaima, H. Kattelus

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    14 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers made by direct wafer bonding are widely used as starting substrates for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication. Adding another layer next to the SiO2 SOI, or replacing it with another material, will be a way to tailor the SOI wafers further. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to deposit pinhole-free nanometer-thin conformal and smooth inorganic films at low temperatures, making it of interest for many applications in MEMS. In this work, the direct wafer bonding of ALD TiO2, and Al2O3 for reference, is investigated, eventually in order to fabricate SOI wafers with buried ALD oxides. Finding suitable process conditions for TiO2 bonding was challenging: bonding could not be made for TiO2 deposited directly on SiO2 or Si, and annealing at 1100°C gave non-continuous Ti-containing layers. Using a 2-nm Al2O3 under-layer and annealing at 700°C gave void-free bonding with continuous TiO2 and a bond strength of approximately 1600 mJ/m2, enabling the fabrication of SOI wafers with buried TiO2.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)268-276
    Number of pages9
    JournalSensors and Actuators A: Physical
    Volume188
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2012
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed
    Event16th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, Transducers’11
    - Beijing, China
    Duration: 5 Jun 20119 Jun 2011

    Fingerprint

    Wafer bonding
    Aluminum Oxide
    Silicon
    titanium oxides
    Titanium dioxide
    aluminum oxides
    wafers
    Atomic layer deposition
    Aluminum
    insulators
    Oxides
    oxides
    silicon
    atomic layer epitaxy
    MEMS
    microelectromechanical systems
    Annealing
    Fabrication
    fabrication
    annealing

    Keywords

    • Al2O3
    • ALD
    • Atomic layer deposition
    • Silicon-on-insulator
    • SOI
    • TiO2
    • Wafer bonding

    Cite this

    Puurunen, R. L. ; Suni, T. ; Ylivaara, O. M.E. ; Kondo, H. ; Ammar, M. ; Ishida, T. ; Fujita, H. ; Bosseboeuf, A. ; Zaima, S. ; Kattelus, H. / Silicon full wafer bonding with atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide intermediate films. In: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2012 ; Vol. 188. pp. 268-276.
    @article{07715c00742c4f7ba3c0253ec29c7b2e,
    title = "Silicon full wafer bonding with atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide intermediate films",
    abstract = "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers made by direct wafer bonding are widely used as starting substrates for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication. Adding another layer next to the SiO2 SOI, or replacing it with another material, will be a way to tailor the SOI wafers further. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to deposit pinhole-free nanometer-thin conformal and smooth inorganic films at low temperatures, making it of interest for many applications in MEMS. In this work, the direct wafer bonding of ALD TiO2, and Al2O3 for reference, is investigated, eventually in order to fabricate SOI wafers with buried ALD oxides. Finding suitable process conditions for TiO2 bonding was challenging: bonding could not be made for TiO2 deposited directly on SiO2 or Si, and annealing at 1100°C gave non-continuous Ti-containing layers. Using a 2-nm Al2O3 under-layer and annealing at 700°C gave void-free bonding with continuous TiO2 and a bond strength of approximately 1600 mJ/m2, enabling the fabrication of SOI wafers with buried TiO2.",
    keywords = "Al2O3, ALD, Atomic layer deposition, Silicon-on-insulator, SOI, TiO2, Wafer bonding",
    author = "Puurunen, {R. L.} and T. Suni and Ylivaara, {O. M.E.} and H. Kondo and M. Ammar and T. Ishida and H. Fujita and A. Bosseboeuf and S. Zaima and H. Kattelus",
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    Puurunen, RL, Suni, T, Ylivaara, OME, Kondo, H, Ammar, M, Ishida, T, Fujita, H, Bosseboeuf, A, Zaima, S & Kattelus, H 2012, 'Silicon full wafer bonding with atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide intermediate films', Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 188, pp. 268-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2012.05.006

    Silicon full wafer bonding with atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide intermediate films. / Puurunen, R. L. (Corresponding Author); Suni, T.; Ylivaara, O. M.E.; Kondo, H.; Ammar, M.; Ishida, T.; Fujita, H.; Bosseboeuf, A.; Zaima, S.; Kattelus, H.

    In: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 188, 11.05.2012, p. 268-276.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    T1 - Silicon full wafer bonding with atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide intermediate films

    AU - Puurunen, R. L.

    AU - Suni, T.

    AU - Ylivaara, O. M.E.

    AU - Kondo, H.

    AU - Ammar, M.

    AU - Ishida, T.

    AU - Fujita, H.

    AU - Bosseboeuf, A.

    AU - Zaima, S.

    AU - Kattelus, H.

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    PY - 2012/5/11

    Y1 - 2012/5/11

    N2 - Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers made by direct wafer bonding are widely used as starting substrates for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication. Adding another layer next to the SiO2 SOI, or replacing it with another material, will be a way to tailor the SOI wafers further. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to deposit pinhole-free nanometer-thin conformal and smooth inorganic films at low temperatures, making it of interest for many applications in MEMS. In this work, the direct wafer bonding of ALD TiO2, and Al2O3 for reference, is investigated, eventually in order to fabricate SOI wafers with buried ALD oxides. Finding suitable process conditions for TiO2 bonding was challenging: bonding could not be made for TiO2 deposited directly on SiO2 or Si, and annealing at 1100°C gave non-continuous Ti-containing layers. Using a 2-nm Al2O3 under-layer and annealing at 700°C gave void-free bonding with continuous TiO2 and a bond strength of approximately 1600 mJ/m2, enabling the fabrication of SOI wafers with buried TiO2.

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    KW - Atomic layer deposition

    KW - Silicon-on-insulator

    KW - SOI

    KW - TiO2

    KW - Wafer bonding

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