Silicon nano-thermoelectric detectors for for sensing and instrumentation applications

Aapo Varpula (Corresponding author), David Renahy, Kestutis Grigoras, Kirsi Tappura, Andrey Timofeev, Andrey Shchepetov, Juha Hassel, Jouni Ahopelto, Séverine Gomès, Mika Prunnila

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

    Abstract

    Thermoelectric devices consisting of a thermocouple or thermopile can be used as efficient detectors in various applications. Thermoelectric detectors themselves do not require external power to operate. This eliminates noise sources associated with electric current. This leaves thermal fluctuation and Johnson-Nyquist noises as the dominating ones. In frequencies well below thermal cut-off the internal noise-equivalent power of a thermoelectric detector is given by [1] NEP = NEPth[ 1+ 1/(ZeffT) ]1/2, (1) with NEPth=(4kBT2G)1/2, the NEP of the thermal fluctuation noise, kB, Boltzmann’s constant, T, the absolute temperature, G, the total thermal conductance between the detector hot junction(s) and the surroundings (including phonons and other thermal channels), ZeffT = S2T/(GR), the detector effective thermoelectric figure of merit, S, the total Seebeck coefficient of the thermocouple(s), and R, the total electric resistance of the thermocouple(s). In specific geometries and material parameter values ZeffT coincides with the text-book expression of the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT [1]. Equation (1) shows that when ZeffT>1, the internal noise is dominated by the fundamental NEPth only. Therefore, silicon nanomembranes [1–3] are attractive materials for thermoelectric detectors as they possess the relatively high power factor of silicon and their thermal conductivity can be reduced up to two orders of magnitude from the bulk value. We present thermoelectric thermal detectors based on silicon nanomembranes and demonstrate their use in scanning thermal microscopy. The devices have a built in heater that allows the device (Fig.) and material performance, and the SThM tip –device interaction to be characterized. When equipped with an optical absorber, this kind of detector can be optimized of infrared sensing as well [5]. We discuss also these applications.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationBook of abstracts. Nanoscale and Microscale Heat Transfer VI
    Subtitle of host publicationEurotherm seminar No 111
    Publication statusPublished - 5 Dec 2018
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible
    EventNanoscale and Microscale Heat Transfer VI, NMHT-VI : Eurotherm seminar No 111 - Levi, Kittilä, Finland
    Duration: 2 Dec 20187 Dec 2018
    Conference number: 6

    Conference

    ConferenceNanoscale and Microscale Heat Transfer VI, NMHT-VI
    Abbreviated titleNMHT-VI
    CountryFinland
    CityKittilä
    Period2/12/187/12/18

    Fingerprint

    detectors
    silicon
    thermocouples
    figure of merit
    thermopiles
    Seebeck effect
    electric current
    heaters
    leaves
    absorbers
    phonons
    thermal conductivity
    cut-off
    microscopy
    scanning
    geometry
    interactions
    temperature

    Cite this

    Varpula, A., Renahy, D., Grigoras, K., Tappura, K., Timofeev, A., Shchepetov, A., ... Prunnila, M. (2018). Silicon nano-thermoelectric detectors for for sensing and instrumentation applications. In Book of abstracts. Nanoscale and Microscale Heat Transfer VI : Eurotherm seminar No 111 [192]
    Varpula, Aapo ; Renahy, David ; Grigoras, Kestutis ; Tappura, Kirsi ; Timofeev, Andrey ; Shchepetov, Andrey ; Hassel, Juha ; Ahopelto, Jouni ; Gomès, Séverine ; Prunnila, Mika. / Silicon nano-thermoelectric detectors for for sensing and instrumentation applications. Book of abstracts. Nanoscale and Microscale Heat Transfer VI : Eurotherm seminar No 111. 2018.
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    title = "Silicon nano-thermoelectric detectors for for sensing and instrumentation applications",
    abstract = "Thermoelectric devices consisting of a thermocouple or thermopile can be used as efficient detectors in various applications. Thermoelectric detectors themselves do not require external power to operate. This eliminates noise sources associated with electric current. This leaves thermal fluctuation and Johnson-Nyquist noises as the dominating ones. In frequencies well below thermal cut-off the internal noise-equivalent power of a thermoelectric detector is given by [1] NEP = NEPth[ 1+ 1/(ZeffT) ]1/2, (1) with NEPth=(4kBT2G)1/2, the NEP of the thermal fluctuation noise, kB, Boltzmann’s constant, T, the absolute temperature, G, the total thermal conductance between the detector hot junction(s) and the surroundings (including phonons and other thermal channels), ZeffT = S2T/(GR), the detector effective thermoelectric figure of merit, S, the total Seebeck coefficient of the thermocouple(s), and R, the total electric resistance of the thermocouple(s). In specific geometries and material parameter values ZeffT coincides with the text-book expression of the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT [1]. Equation (1) shows that when ZeffT>1, the internal noise is dominated by the fundamental NEPth only. Therefore, silicon nanomembranes [1–3] are attractive materials for thermoelectric detectors as they possess the relatively high power factor of silicon and their thermal conductivity can be reduced up to two orders of magnitude from the bulk value. We present thermoelectric thermal detectors based on silicon nanomembranes and demonstrate their use in scanning thermal microscopy. The devices have a built in heater that allows the device (Fig.) and material performance, and the SThM tip –device interaction to be characterized. When equipped with an optical absorber, this kind of detector can be optimized of infrared sensing as well [5]. We discuss also these applications.",
    author = "Aapo Varpula and David Renahy and Kestutis Grigoras and Kirsi Tappura and Andrey Timofeev and Andrey Shchepetov and Juha Hassel and Jouni Ahopelto and S{\'e}verine Gom{\`e}s and Mika Prunnila",
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    Varpula, A, Renahy, D, Grigoras, K, Tappura, K, Timofeev, A, Shchepetov, A, Hassel, J, Ahopelto, J, Gomès, S & Prunnila, M 2018, Silicon nano-thermoelectric detectors for for sensing and instrumentation applications. in Book of abstracts. Nanoscale and Microscale Heat Transfer VI : Eurotherm seminar No 111., 192, Nanoscale and Microscale Heat Transfer VI, NMHT-VI , Kittilä, Finland, 2/12/18.

    Silicon nano-thermoelectric detectors for for sensing and instrumentation applications. / Varpula, Aapo (Corresponding author); Renahy, David; Grigoras, Kestutis; Tappura, Kirsi; Timofeev, Andrey; Shchepetov, Andrey; Hassel, Juha; Ahopelto, Jouni; Gomès, Séverine; Prunnila, Mika.

    Book of abstracts. Nanoscale and Microscale Heat Transfer VI : Eurotherm seminar No 111. 2018. 192.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

    TY - CHAP

    T1 - Silicon nano-thermoelectric detectors for for sensing and instrumentation applications

    AU - Varpula, Aapo

    AU - Renahy, David

    AU - Grigoras, Kestutis

    AU - Tappura, Kirsi

    AU - Timofeev, Andrey

    AU - Shchepetov, Andrey

    AU - Hassel, Juha

    AU - Ahopelto, Jouni

    AU - Gomès, Séverine

    AU - Prunnila, Mika

    PY - 2018/12/5

    Y1 - 2018/12/5

    N2 - Thermoelectric devices consisting of a thermocouple or thermopile can be used as efficient detectors in various applications. Thermoelectric detectors themselves do not require external power to operate. This eliminates noise sources associated with electric current. This leaves thermal fluctuation and Johnson-Nyquist noises as the dominating ones. In frequencies well below thermal cut-off the internal noise-equivalent power of a thermoelectric detector is given by [1] NEP = NEPth[ 1+ 1/(ZeffT) ]1/2, (1) with NEPth=(4kBT2G)1/2, the NEP of the thermal fluctuation noise, kB, Boltzmann’s constant, T, the absolute temperature, G, the total thermal conductance between the detector hot junction(s) and the surroundings (including phonons and other thermal channels), ZeffT = S2T/(GR), the detector effective thermoelectric figure of merit, S, the total Seebeck coefficient of the thermocouple(s), and R, the total electric resistance of the thermocouple(s). In specific geometries and material parameter values ZeffT coincides with the text-book expression of the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT [1]. Equation (1) shows that when ZeffT>1, the internal noise is dominated by the fundamental NEPth only. Therefore, silicon nanomembranes [1–3] are attractive materials for thermoelectric detectors as they possess the relatively high power factor of silicon and their thermal conductivity can be reduced up to two orders of magnitude from the bulk value. We present thermoelectric thermal detectors based on silicon nanomembranes and demonstrate their use in scanning thermal microscopy. The devices have a built in heater that allows the device (Fig.) and material performance, and the SThM tip –device interaction to be characterized. When equipped with an optical absorber, this kind of detector can be optimized of infrared sensing as well [5]. We discuss also these applications.

    AB - Thermoelectric devices consisting of a thermocouple or thermopile can be used as efficient detectors in various applications. Thermoelectric detectors themselves do not require external power to operate. This eliminates noise sources associated with electric current. This leaves thermal fluctuation and Johnson-Nyquist noises as the dominating ones. In frequencies well below thermal cut-off the internal noise-equivalent power of a thermoelectric detector is given by [1] NEP = NEPth[ 1+ 1/(ZeffT) ]1/2, (1) with NEPth=(4kBT2G)1/2, the NEP of the thermal fluctuation noise, kB, Boltzmann’s constant, T, the absolute temperature, G, the total thermal conductance between the detector hot junction(s) and the surroundings (including phonons and other thermal channels), ZeffT = S2T/(GR), the detector effective thermoelectric figure of merit, S, the total Seebeck coefficient of the thermocouple(s), and R, the total electric resistance of the thermocouple(s). In specific geometries and material parameter values ZeffT coincides with the text-book expression of the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT [1]. Equation (1) shows that when ZeffT>1, the internal noise is dominated by the fundamental NEPth only. Therefore, silicon nanomembranes [1–3] are attractive materials for thermoelectric detectors as they possess the relatively high power factor of silicon and their thermal conductivity can be reduced up to two orders of magnitude from the bulk value. We present thermoelectric thermal detectors based on silicon nanomembranes and demonstrate their use in scanning thermal microscopy. The devices have a built in heater that allows the device (Fig.) and material performance, and the SThM tip –device interaction to be characterized. When equipped with an optical absorber, this kind of detector can be optimized of infrared sensing as well [5]. We discuss also these applications.

    UR - https://www.vtt.fi/sites/eurotherm2018/programme

    M3 - Conference abstract in proceedings

    BT - Book of abstracts. Nanoscale and Microscale Heat Transfer VI

    ER -

    Varpula A, Renahy D, Grigoras K, Tappura K, Timofeev A, Shchepetov A et al. Silicon nano-thermoelectric detectors for for sensing and instrumentation applications. In Book of abstracts. Nanoscale and Microscale Heat Transfer VI : Eurotherm seminar No 111. 2018. 192