Simulated yield and quality distribution of sawn timber from final felling in a Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stand with varying thinning regimes: A case study

Anu Kantola (Corresponding Author), Tiecheng Song, Arto Usenius, Antti Heikkilä

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


An integrated simulation tool, formed by integrating the InnoSIM sawing simulation system with the RetroSTEM simulator, was used to convert available wood raw materials from final felling into sawn timber, allowing for calculation of the three-dimensional wood properties of individual stems (stem geometry, heartwood formation, knottiness) as well as the volume, quality and value of sawn timber in a Norway spruce stand with different thinning regimes (unthinned, normal and intensively thinned). Based on the input data of sawing patterns, the simulations indicate that there are relatively small differences (<8%) in the volume yield (m3ha−1) of sawn goods resulting from sawlogs available from final felling with different thinning practices. However, intensive thinning yielded the largest stem diameters and the greatest volumes (m3ha−1) of large-sized centre goods (thickness: 50, 63, 75 mm) of rather poor quality. Normal thinning yielded the largest volume of A-grade side boards and centre goods (m3ha−1), as well as the best total value ([euro]ha−1) of sawn timber. Differences observed in sawn timber quality distribution can contribute to even more significant variation in value yields, if pricing mechanisms of timber products change to favour higher grade timber products.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-97
JournalWood Material Science and Engineering
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



  • Quality
  • sawn timbeeer
  • simulation tools

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