Simulation-based life cycle assessment of ferrochrome smelting technologies to determine environmental impacts

Joseph Hamuyuni, Hannu Johto, Ali Bunjaku, Saija Vatanen, Tiina Pajula, Pasi Mäkelä, Mari Lindgren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Decarbonization of metal production is currently a unique challenge for the industry. To gain insights, environmental impacts of ferrochrome smelting technologies were estimated using simulation-based life cycle assessment. Two leading technologies: (1) Steel Belt Sintering-Submerged Electric Arc Furnace (SBS-SAF), and (2) Rotary Kiln-Submerged Electric Arc Furnace (RK-SAF) were investigated. Four environmental impact categories: climate change, acidification, particulate matter, and resource use (minerals and metals), were considered. Results showed that GHG emissions for producing high carbon ferrochrome vary to a greater extent depending on location of processing plant because of differences in electricity emission factors. For example, South African energy grid generates more GHG emission than Finnish energy grid. Furthermore, though prereduction reduced SAF energy consumption, it did not necessarily result in reduced net GHG emissions due to high coal consumption of RK. Acidification and particulate matter were higher when using RK-SAF technology. Ferrochrome production generally had low impact on resource use.
Original languageEnglish
Article number126503
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Early online date25 Feb 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Acidification
  • FeCr smelting Process
  • Greenhouse gas
  • HSC Simulation
  • Particulate matter
  • Resource use


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