Simulation of non-condensable gas flow in two-fluid model of APROS: Description of the model, validation and application

Markku Hänninen (Corresponding Author), Esa Ahtinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In Loviisa VVER-440 type nuclear power plant the nitrogen used to pressurize hydro-accumulators and other passive safety systems is gradually dissolved to the accumulator water during the long period of normal plant operation. If a primary circuit leakage takes place, the accumulator water is injected into the primary circuit, where lower pressure is prevailing and as a consequence the dissolved nitrogen is released from the liquid phase to gas phase. It is also possible that after the liquid has run out of the accumulator the gaseous nitrogen may flow into the primary system and may thus disturb the circulation in the primary circuit. It is important that the system codes that are used in safety analysis work are capable to simulate flows of non-condensable gases and that they can take into account the release of the dissolved gases. In this paper the non-condensable gas model of the APROS two-fluid safety analysis system code is described. The model has been validated using one experiment carried out in the PACTEL VVER-440 test facility, where the release of the nitrogen dissolved in the accumulator water has been studied. The model has been used to analyze the primary–secondary leakage (PRISE) in the Loviisa nuclear power plant. In this leakage incident the dissolved nitrogen from the accumulator was assumed to flow into the primary circuit of the plant.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1588-1596
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of Nuclear Energy
Volume36
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Flow of gases
Nitrogen
Fluids
Networks (circuits)
Gases
Nuclear power plants
Water
Liquids
Test facilities
Security systems
Experiments

Keywords

  • APROS
  • nitrogen
  • PRISE
  • nuclear power plants
  • nuclear safety

Cite this

@article{aa3d4c7e74b442df8a939986a6c87966,
title = "Simulation of non-condensable gas flow in two-fluid model of APROS: Description of the model, validation and application",
abstract = "In Loviisa VVER-440 type nuclear power plant the nitrogen used to pressurize hydro-accumulators and other passive safety systems is gradually dissolved to the accumulator water during the long period of normal plant operation. If a primary circuit leakage takes place, the accumulator water is injected into the primary circuit, where lower pressure is prevailing and as a consequence the dissolved nitrogen is released from the liquid phase to gas phase. It is also possible that after the liquid has run out of the accumulator the gaseous nitrogen may flow into the primary system and may thus disturb the circulation in the primary circuit. It is important that the system codes that are used in safety analysis work are capable to simulate flows of non-condensable gases and that they can take into account the release of the dissolved gases. In this paper the non-condensable gas model of the APROS two-fluid safety analysis system code is described. The model has been validated using one experiment carried out in the PACTEL VVER-440 test facility, where the release of the nitrogen dissolved in the accumulator water has been studied. The model has been used to analyze the primary–secondary leakage (PRISE) in the Loviisa nuclear power plant. In this leakage incident the dissolved nitrogen from the accumulator was assumed to flow into the primary circuit of the plant.",
keywords = "APROS, nitrogen, PRISE, nuclear power plants, nuclear safety",
author = "Markku H{\"a}nninen and Esa Ahtinen",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1016/j.anucene.2009.07.018",
language = "English",
volume = "36",
pages = "1588--1596",
journal = "Annals of Nuclear Energy",
issn = "0306-4549",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "10",

}

Simulation of non-condensable gas flow in two-fluid model of APROS : Description of the model, validation and application. / Hänninen, Markku (Corresponding Author); Ahtinen, Esa.

In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, Vol. 36, No. 10, 2009, p. 1588-1596.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Simulation of non-condensable gas flow in two-fluid model of APROS

T2 - Description of the model, validation and application

AU - Hänninen, Markku

AU - Ahtinen, Esa

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - In Loviisa VVER-440 type nuclear power plant the nitrogen used to pressurize hydro-accumulators and other passive safety systems is gradually dissolved to the accumulator water during the long period of normal plant operation. If a primary circuit leakage takes place, the accumulator water is injected into the primary circuit, where lower pressure is prevailing and as a consequence the dissolved nitrogen is released from the liquid phase to gas phase. It is also possible that after the liquid has run out of the accumulator the gaseous nitrogen may flow into the primary system and may thus disturb the circulation in the primary circuit. It is important that the system codes that are used in safety analysis work are capable to simulate flows of non-condensable gases and that they can take into account the release of the dissolved gases. In this paper the non-condensable gas model of the APROS two-fluid safety analysis system code is described. The model has been validated using one experiment carried out in the PACTEL VVER-440 test facility, where the release of the nitrogen dissolved in the accumulator water has been studied. The model has been used to analyze the primary–secondary leakage (PRISE) in the Loviisa nuclear power plant. In this leakage incident the dissolved nitrogen from the accumulator was assumed to flow into the primary circuit of the plant.

AB - In Loviisa VVER-440 type nuclear power plant the nitrogen used to pressurize hydro-accumulators and other passive safety systems is gradually dissolved to the accumulator water during the long period of normal plant operation. If a primary circuit leakage takes place, the accumulator water is injected into the primary circuit, where lower pressure is prevailing and as a consequence the dissolved nitrogen is released from the liquid phase to gas phase. It is also possible that after the liquid has run out of the accumulator the gaseous nitrogen may flow into the primary system and may thus disturb the circulation in the primary circuit. It is important that the system codes that are used in safety analysis work are capable to simulate flows of non-condensable gases and that they can take into account the release of the dissolved gases. In this paper the non-condensable gas model of the APROS two-fluid safety analysis system code is described. The model has been validated using one experiment carried out in the PACTEL VVER-440 test facility, where the release of the nitrogen dissolved in the accumulator water has been studied. The model has been used to analyze the primary–secondary leakage (PRISE) in the Loviisa nuclear power plant. In this leakage incident the dissolved nitrogen from the accumulator was assumed to flow into the primary circuit of the plant.

KW - APROS

KW - nitrogen

KW - PRISE

KW - nuclear power plants

KW - nuclear safety

U2 - 10.1016/j.anucene.2009.07.018

DO - 10.1016/j.anucene.2009.07.018

M3 - Article

VL - 36

SP - 1588

EP - 1596

JO - Annals of Nuclear Energy

JF - Annals of Nuclear Energy

SN - 0306-4549

IS - 10

ER -