Simultaneous multi-location wireless monitoring of sweat lactate trends

Liam Gillan (Corresponding Author), Tuija Teerinen, Mika Suhonen, Liisa Kivimäki, Ari Alastalo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
15 Downloads (Pure)


Wearable device technologies for sweat analytics present a versatile application for monitoring physiological state, which can circumvent the requirement for inconvenient and invasive blood sampling. This paper reports a miniature electrochemical sensor platform for non-invasive and wireless real-time monitoring of lactate in exercise-induced human sweat. The conformal and low profile sensor platform is composed of (a) a flexible electronic readout tag with wireless charging and data acquisition, and (b) a disposable enzymatic amperometric biosensor patch with electrodes fabricated using high throughput roll-to-roll processing. Data were generated in real time from sensor response to lactate in exercise-induced sweat from multiple body regions simultaneously. The biosensor demonstrates current response proportional to lactate at physiological concentration range between 5 and 30 mM. This developed platform can be adapted for sensing of other sweat constituents including ions or metabolites, and therefore advances wearable technology for personalized physiological monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Article number034003
JournalFlexible and Printed Electronics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Printed electronics
  • Sports monitoring
  • Sweat lactate
  • Sweat sensor
  • Wearable electronics


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