Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor

Anna Moisala, Albert Nasibulin, David Brown, Hua Jiang, Leonid Khriachtchev, Esko I. Kauppinen (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

A gas-phase process of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) formation, based on thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl or ferrocene in the presence of carbon monoxide (CO), was investigated in ambient pressure laminar flow reactors in the temperature range of 600–1300 °C. Ferrocene was found to be a better catalyst precursor in the studied conditions since iron pentacarbonyl decomposes at lower temperatures resulting in the excessive growth of catalyst particles. In situ sampling carried out at 1000 °C showed that the SWCNT growth occurred from individual metal particles in the heating section of the furnace in the temperature range of 891–928 °C, in which the growth rate was estimated to exceed 2 μm/s. FT-IR measurements of gaseous products revealed that the majority of the CO disproportionation took place on the reactor walls. Raman measurements confirmed the results of TEM observations, namely, the formation of very high purity SWCNT product. On-line aerosol number size distributions were measured to detect the conditions of SWCNT formation and the product morphology changes. Mechanism of SWCNT formation in the gas phase from ferrocene and CO is discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4393-4402
JournalChemical Engineering Science
Volume61
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCN)
Laminar flow
Iron
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon monoxide
Gases
Catalysts
Aerosols
Temperature
Furnaces
Pyrolysis
Metals
ferrocene
iron pentacarbonyl
Sampling
Transmission electron microscopy
Heating

Keywords

  • aerosols
  • catalysis
  • carbon nanotubes
  • single-walled carbon nanotubes
  • SWCNT
  • laminar flow
  • nucleation
  • particle formation

Cite this

Moisala, A., Nasibulin, A., Brown, D., Jiang, H., Khriachtchev, L., & Kauppinen, E. I. (2006). Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor. Chemical Engineering Science, 61(13), 4393-4402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2006.02.020
Moisala, Anna ; Nasibulin, Albert ; Brown, David ; Jiang, Hua ; Khriachtchev, Leonid ; Kauppinen, Esko I. / Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor. In: Chemical Engineering Science. 2006 ; Vol. 61, No. 13. pp. 4393-4402.
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abstract = "A gas-phase process of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) formation, based on thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl or ferrocene in the presence of carbon monoxide (CO), was investigated in ambient pressure laminar flow reactors in the temperature range of 600–1300 °C. Ferrocene was found to be a better catalyst precursor in the studied conditions since iron pentacarbonyl decomposes at lower temperatures resulting in the excessive growth of catalyst particles. In situ sampling carried out at 1000 °C showed that the SWCNT growth occurred from individual metal particles in the heating section of the furnace in the temperature range of 891–928 °C, in which the growth rate was estimated to exceed 2 μm/s. FT-IR measurements of gaseous products revealed that the majority of the CO disproportionation took place on the reactor walls. Raman measurements confirmed the results of TEM observations, namely, the formation of very high purity SWCNT product. On-line aerosol number size distributions were measured to detect the conditions of SWCNT formation and the product morphology changes. Mechanism of SWCNT formation in the gas phase from ferrocene and CO is discussed.",
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Moisala, A, Nasibulin, A, Brown, D, Jiang, H, Khriachtchev, L & Kauppinen, EI 2006, 'Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor', Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 61, no. 13, pp. 4393-4402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2006.02.020

Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor. / Moisala, Anna; Nasibulin, Albert; Brown, David; Jiang, Hua; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Kauppinen, Esko I. (Corresponding Author).

In: Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 61, No. 13, 2006, p. 4393-4402.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor

AU - Moisala, Anna

AU - Nasibulin, Albert

AU - Brown, David

AU - Jiang, Hua

AU - Khriachtchev, Leonid

AU - Kauppinen, Esko I.

PY - 2006

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N2 - A gas-phase process of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) formation, based on thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl or ferrocene in the presence of carbon monoxide (CO), was investigated in ambient pressure laminar flow reactors in the temperature range of 600–1300 °C. Ferrocene was found to be a better catalyst precursor in the studied conditions since iron pentacarbonyl decomposes at lower temperatures resulting in the excessive growth of catalyst particles. In situ sampling carried out at 1000 °C showed that the SWCNT growth occurred from individual metal particles in the heating section of the furnace in the temperature range of 891–928 °C, in which the growth rate was estimated to exceed 2 μm/s. FT-IR measurements of gaseous products revealed that the majority of the CO disproportionation took place on the reactor walls. Raman measurements confirmed the results of TEM observations, namely, the formation of very high purity SWCNT product. On-line aerosol number size distributions were measured to detect the conditions of SWCNT formation and the product morphology changes. Mechanism of SWCNT formation in the gas phase from ferrocene and CO is discussed.

AB - A gas-phase process of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) formation, based on thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl or ferrocene in the presence of carbon monoxide (CO), was investigated in ambient pressure laminar flow reactors in the temperature range of 600–1300 °C. Ferrocene was found to be a better catalyst precursor in the studied conditions since iron pentacarbonyl decomposes at lower temperatures resulting in the excessive growth of catalyst particles. In situ sampling carried out at 1000 °C showed that the SWCNT growth occurred from individual metal particles in the heating section of the furnace in the temperature range of 891–928 °C, in which the growth rate was estimated to exceed 2 μm/s. FT-IR measurements of gaseous products revealed that the majority of the CO disproportionation took place on the reactor walls. Raman measurements confirmed the results of TEM observations, namely, the formation of very high purity SWCNT product. On-line aerosol number size distributions were measured to detect the conditions of SWCNT formation and the product morphology changes. Mechanism of SWCNT formation in the gas phase from ferrocene and CO is discussed.

KW - aerosols

KW - catalysis

KW - carbon nanotubes

KW - single-walled carbon nanotubes

KW - SWCNT

KW - laminar flow

KW - nucleation

KW - particle formation

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