Smoke gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: Summary of the SAFIR project results

Tuula Hakkarainen, Esko Mikkola (Corresponding Author), Jan Laperre, Francis Gensous, Peter Fardell, Yannick Le Tallec, Claudio Baiocchi, Keith Paul, Margaret Simonson, Caroline Deleu, Edwin Metcalfe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

The determination of toxic components from fire gases is difficult because the environment is hot, reactions are often temperature dependent, and a lot of soot may be produced. Due to the different properties of the gas components, a different time‐consuming procedure for each species has traditionally been used. The use of FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers as a continuous monitoring technique overcomes many of the problems in smoke gas analyses. FTIR offers an opportunity to set up a calibration and prediction method for each gas showing a characteristic spectral band in the infrared region of the spectrum.

The objective of the SAFIR project was to further develop the FTIR gas analysis of smoke gases to be an applicable and reliable method for the determination of toxic components in combustion gases related to fire test conditions. The optimum probe design, filter parameters and the most suitable sampling lines in terms of flow rate, diameter, construction material and operating temperature have been specified. In the large scale, special concern was given to the probe design and the effects of the probe location as well as practical considerations of the sampling line length. Quantitative calibration and prediction methods have been constructed for different components present in smoke gases. Recommendations on how to deal with interferents, non‐linearities and outliers have been provided and a verification method for the spectrometer for unexpected variations and for the different models have been described.

FTIR measurement procedures in different fire test scenarios have been studied using the recommendations of this project for measurement techniques and analysis and an interlaboratory trial of the FTIR technique in smoke gas analysis was carried out to define the repeatability and reproducibility of the method in connection with a small scale fire test method, the cone calorimeter.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101 - 112
Number of pages12
JournalFire and Materials
Volume24
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2000
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Gas fuel analysis
Smoke
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Gases
Fourier transforms
Infrared radiation
Fires
Poisons
Calibration
Sampling
Soot
Infrared spectrometers
Calorimeters
Spectrometers
Cones
Flow rate
Temperature
Monitoring

Cite this

Hakkarainen, Tuula ; Mikkola, Esko ; Laperre, Jan ; Gensous, Francis ; Fardell, Peter ; Le Tallec, Yannick ; Baiocchi, Claudio ; Paul, Keith ; Simonson, Margaret ; Deleu, Caroline ; Metcalfe, Edwin. / Smoke gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy : Summary of the SAFIR project results. In: Fire and Materials. 2000 ; Vol. 24, No. 2. pp. 101 - 112.
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abstract = "The determination of toxic components from fire gases is difficult because the environment is hot, reactions are often temperature dependent, and a lot of soot may be produced. Due to the different properties of the gas components, a different time‐consuming procedure for each species has traditionally been used. The use of FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers as a continuous monitoring technique overcomes many of the problems in smoke gas analyses. FTIR offers an opportunity to set up a calibration and prediction method for each gas showing a characteristic spectral band in the infrared region of the spectrum. The objective of the SAFIR project was to further develop the FTIR gas analysis of smoke gases to be an applicable and reliable method for the determination of toxic components in combustion gases related to fire test conditions. The optimum probe design, filter parameters and the most suitable sampling lines in terms of flow rate, diameter, construction material and operating temperature have been specified. In the large scale, special concern was given to the probe design and the effects of the probe location as well as practical considerations of the sampling line length. Quantitative calibration and prediction methods have been constructed for different components present in smoke gases. Recommendations on how to deal with interferents, non‐linearities and outliers have been provided and a verification method for the spectrometer for unexpected variations and for the different models have been described. FTIR measurement procedures in different fire test scenarios have been studied using the recommendations of this project for measurement techniques and analysis and an interlaboratory trial of the FTIR technique in smoke gas analysis was carried out to define the repeatability and reproducibility of the method in connection with a small scale fire test method, the cone calorimeter.",
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Hakkarainen, T, Mikkola, E, Laperre, J, Gensous, F, Fardell, P, Le Tallec, Y, Baiocchi, C, Paul, K, Simonson, M, Deleu, C & Metcalfe, E 2000, 'Smoke gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: Summary of the SAFIR project results', Fire and Materials, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 101 - 112. https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1018(200003/04)24:2<101::AID-FAM729>3.0.CO;2-2

Smoke gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy : Summary of the SAFIR project results. / Hakkarainen, Tuula; Mikkola, Esko (Corresponding Author); Laperre, Jan; Gensous, Francis; Fardell, Peter; Le Tallec, Yannick; Baiocchi, Claudio; Paul, Keith; Simonson, Margaret; Deleu, Caroline; Metcalfe, Edwin.

In: Fire and Materials, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2000, p. 101 - 112.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Smoke gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

T2 - Summary of the SAFIR project results

AU - Hakkarainen, Tuula

AU - Mikkola, Esko

AU - Laperre, Jan

AU - Gensous, Francis

AU - Fardell, Peter

AU - Le Tallec, Yannick

AU - Baiocchi, Claudio

AU - Paul, Keith

AU - Simonson, Margaret

AU - Deleu, Caroline

AU - Metcalfe, Edwin

PY - 2000

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N2 - The determination of toxic components from fire gases is difficult because the environment is hot, reactions are often temperature dependent, and a lot of soot may be produced. Due to the different properties of the gas components, a different time‐consuming procedure for each species has traditionally been used. The use of FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers as a continuous monitoring technique overcomes many of the problems in smoke gas analyses. FTIR offers an opportunity to set up a calibration and prediction method for each gas showing a characteristic spectral band in the infrared region of the spectrum. The objective of the SAFIR project was to further develop the FTIR gas analysis of smoke gases to be an applicable and reliable method for the determination of toxic components in combustion gases related to fire test conditions. The optimum probe design, filter parameters and the most suitable sampling lines in terms of flow rate, diameter, construction material and operating temperature have been specified. In the large scale, special concern was given to the probe design and the effects of the probe location as well as practical considerations of the sampling line length. Quantitative calibration and prediction methods have been constructed for different components present in smoke gases. Recommendations on how to deal with interferents, non‐linearities and outliers have been provided and a verification method for the spectrometer for unexpected variations and for the different models have been described. FTIR measurement procedures in different fire test scenarios have been studied using the recommendations of this project for measurement techniques and analysis and an interlaboratory trial of the FTIR technique in smoke gas analysis was carried out to define the repeatability and reproducibility of the method in connection with a small scale fire test method, the cone calorimeter.

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