Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke
production and experimental methods for measuring smoke
production are discussed in this literature review.
Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed.
Despite the large number of laboratories using different
fire testing methods, published smoke data have been
scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production
from building materials is about experimental results in
small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter
tests have been published for a few materials, e.g.
upholstered furniture materials and some building
products. Mass optical density data and compilations of
gravimetric soot data are available for various materials
as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a
given material often a wide range of values of smoke
output can be found in the literature and care should be
excercised in applying the appropriate value in each
Little information is available in scientific literature
concerning modelling or predictive correlations between
small scale smoke data and real fires or large scale test
results. The scale dependence of the rate of smoke
production is generally not well known.
In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and
its optical properties are often measured simultaneously
with other fire properties as heat release and flame
spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full
scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system.
In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone
calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in
a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as
practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally
considered to be more reliable and are needed to
validitate the small-scale tests.
Quantitative prediction of the rate of smoke production
using basic principles for commercially available
construction products is not currently possible.
Test-based correlation studies are therefore needed to
enable the use of small scale test data in determining
the fire hazard of products.
There seems to be some evidence that the early stages of
certain full scale scenarios can be predicted, whereas
post-flashover smoke production cannot yet be resolved.
Flow-through systems have been suggested as one means of
obtaining correlations between small scale and large
|Place of Publication||Espoo|
|Publisher||VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland|
|Number of pages||33|
|Publication status||Published - 1995|
|MoE publication type||Not Eligible|
|Series||VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes|
- fire protection
- fire tests