Smoke ventilation in operational fire fighting: Part 2. Multi-storey buildings

Jukka Vaari, Jukka Hietaniemi

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The effect of Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) on compartment fires in a 1:4 scale four-storey building was investigated experimentally. The main goal in the experiments was to find out the optimum ventilation path and ventilation rate as a function of the elevation of the fire room. Also, the smoke movement in the staircase was studied to evaluate issues related to evacuation of the building. The main quantities measured were the total rate of heat release (RHR) and the vertical temperature distributions in the fire room and rooms connected to it, as well as in the staircase. When the PPV was arranged in accordance with the generally adopted practices in fire-fighting, the benefits of PPV could be well reproduced: the visibility along the path of the fire-fighter attack was improved, and the gas temperatures were lowered. However, the RHR of the compartment fire was increased by the application of PPV. An implication of this is that there exists an optimum PPV rate which sufficiently improves the operating conditions of the fire-fighters while keeping the thermal load on the structures in the fire room to a tolerable level.
    Original languageEnglish
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
    Number of pages65
    ISBN (Electronic)951-38-5580-5
    ISBN (Print)951-38-5579-1
    Publication statusPublished - 2000
    MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

    Publication series

    SeriesVTT Publications
    Number419
    ISSN1235-0621

    Fingerprint

    Smoke
    Ventilation
    Fires
    Thermal load
    Visibility
    Temperature distribution
    Gases

    Keywords

    • fire fighting
    • fire safety
    • fire prevention
    • multi-storey buildings
    • smoke abatement
    • smoke vents
    • Positive Pressure Ventilation
    • staircase

    Cite this

    Vaari, J., & Hietaniemi, J. (2000). Smoke ventilation in operational fire fighting: Part 2. Multi-storey buildings. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Publications, No. 419
    Vaari, Jukka ; Hietaniemi, Jukka. / Smoke ventilation in operational fire fighting : Part 2. Multi-storey buildings. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2000. 65 p. (VTT Publications; No. 419).
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    abstract = "The effect of Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) on compartment fires in a 1:4 scale four-storey building was investigated experimentally. The main goal in the experiments was to find out the optimum ventilation path and ventilation rate as a function of the elevation of the fire room. Also, the smoke movement in the staircase was studied to evaluate issues related to evacuation of the building. The main quantities measured were the total rate of heat release (RHR) and the vertical temperature distributions in the fire room and rooms connected to it, as well as in the staircase. When the PPV was arranged in accordance with the generally adopted practices in fire-fighting, the benefits of PPV could be well reproduced: the visibility along the path of the fire-fighter attack was improved, and the gas temperatures were lowered. However, the RHR of the compartment fire was increased by the application of PPV. An implication of this is that there exists an optimum PPV rate which sufficiently improves the operating conditions of the fire-fighters while keeping the thermal load on the structures in the fire room to a tolerable level.",
    keywords = "fire fighting, fire safety, fire prevention, multi-storey buildings, smoke abatement, smoke vents, Positive Pressure Ventilation, staircase",
    author = "Jukka Vaari and Jukka Hietaniemi",
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    Vaari, J & Hietaniemi, J 2000, Smoke ventilation in operational fire fighting: Part 2. Multi-storey buildings. VTT Publications, no. 419, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

    Smoke ventilation in operational fire fighting : Part 2. Multi-storey buildings. / Vaari, Jukka; Hietaniemi, Jukka.

    Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2000. 65 p. (VTT Publications; No. 419).

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

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    AU - Vaari, Jukka

    AU - Hietaniemi, Jukka

    N1 - Project code: R8SU00677

    PY - 2000

    Y1 - 2000

    N2 - The effect of Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) on compartment fires in a 1:4 scale four-storey building was investigated experimentally. The main goal in the experiments was to find out the optimum ventilation path and ventilation rate as a function of the elevation of the fire room. Also, the smoke movement in the staircase was studied to evaluate issues related to evacuation of the building. The main quantities measured were the total rate of heat release (RHR) and the vertical temperature distributions in the fire room and rooms connected to it, as well as in the staircase. When the PPV was arranged in accordance with the generally adopted practices in fire-fighting, the benefits of PPV could be well reproduced: the visibility along the path of the fire-fighter attack was improved, and the gas temperatures were lowered. However, the RHR of the compartment fire was increased by the application of PPV. An implication of this is that there exists an optimum PPV rate which sufficiently improves the operating conditions of the fire-fighters while keeping the thermal load on the structures in the fire room to a tolerable level.

    AB - The effect of Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) on compartment fires in a 1:4 scale four-storey building was investigated experimentally. The main goal in the experiments was to find out the optimum ventilation path and ventilation rate as a function of the elevation of the fire room. Also, the smoke movement in the staircase was studied to evaluate issues related to evacuation of the building. The main quantities measured were the total rate of heat release (RHR) and the vertical temperature distributions in the fire room and rooms connected to it, as well as in the staircase. When the PPV was arranged in accordance with the generally adopted practices in fire-fighting, the benefits of PPV could be well reproduced: the visibility along the path of the fire-fighter attack was improved, and the gas temperatures were lowered. However, the RHR of the compartment fire was increased by the application of PPV. An implication of this is that there exists an optimum PPV rate which sufficiently improves the operating conditions of the fire-fighters while keeping the thermal load on the structures in the fire room to a tolerable level.

    KW - fire fighting

    KW - fire safety

    KW - fire prevention

    KW - multi-storey buildings

    KW - smoke abatement

    KW - smoke vents

    KW - Positive Pressure Ventilation

    KW - staircase

    M3 - Report

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    Vaari J, Hietaniemi J. Smoke ventilation in operational fire fighting: Part 2. Multi-storey buildings. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2000. 65 p. (VTT Publications; No. 419).