Solutions for control of nitrogen discharges at mines and quarries: Miniman project final report

Johannes Jermakka, Elina Merta, Ulla-Maija Mroueh, Helena Arkkola, Sini Eskonniemi, Laura Wendling, Jutta Laine-Ylijoki, Elina Sohlberg, Hanna Heinonen, Tommi Kaartinen, Jaakko Puhakka, Minna Peltola, Stefano Papirio, Aino-Maija Lakaniemi, Gang Zou, Anna Ylinen, Francesco di Capua, Raisa Neitola, Henrik Gustafsson, Tero KorhonenTeemu Karlsson, Tommi Kauppila, Janita Laakso, Pekka Mörsky

Research output: Book/ReportReport

Abstract

The growth of Finnish extractive industry increases the need to study and monitor different environmental impacts and to integrate the environmental issues more tightly into the overall framework of the activities. Nitrogen released from explosives or from mining processes and ending up in the water system can have negative environmental effects. The MINIMAN project, financed by the Tekes Green Mining Programme and the industry aimed at comprehensive understanding on the nitrogen issue in the extractive industry. The project collected essential data on nitrogen compounds present in the environments of mines and quarries, and developed technologies for the treatment of nitrogen containing mine water. Based on a technology review, selective sorption, electrochemically assisted membrane separation and biological treatment were selected to be studied and developed in the project. Denitrification and nitrification studies on synthetic mine wastewater in laboratory scale revealed that denitrification was possible at low pH (2.5) and temperatures as low as 7°C. Nitrification was more pH sensitive. Both processes tolerated metals (Fe, Ni, Co and As). In the adsorption tests with zeolite, complete ammonium removal from real mine wastewater was achieved with a hydraulic retention time of 2 minutes, with complete regeneration. In addition, a novel electropervaporative nitrogen capture technology was developed. Further larger scale testing and development of all technologies is required to ensure their feasibility in a real mining site. A follow-up period in lysimeters showed that the explosives originated nitrogen content of left over stones from natural stone quarrying is relatively low and ca. half of the nitrogen is leached within the first weeks after detonation. The main sources of nitrogen are process and dewatering waters, irrespective of the scale of extractive activity. The total potential nitrogen load to the environment depends on the scale and type of the activity as well as the type of explosives used. In addition to factors related to the activity itself, the overall nitrogen management should take into account the background concentrations and sensitivity of the local ecosystem.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages113
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-8319-5
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Technology
Number225
ISSN2242-1211

Fingerprint

quarry
nitrogen
explosive
nitrification
denitrification
project
wastewater
quarrying
nitrogen compound
lysimeter
dewatering
environmental issue
environmental effect
zeolite
water
environmental impact
ammonium
sorption
regeneration
membrane

Keywords

  • mines
  • quarries
  • explosives
  • nitrate
  • ammonium
  • water treatment technologies

Cite this

Jermakka, J., Merta, E., Mroueh, U-M., Arkkola, H., Eskonniemi, S., Wendling, L., ... Mörsky, P. (2015). Solutions for control of nitrogen discharges at mines and quarries: Miniman project final report. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Technology, No. 225
Jermakka, Johannes ; Merta, Elina ; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija ; Arkkola, Helena ; Eskonniemi, Sini ; Wendling, Laura ; Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta ; Sohlberg, Elina ; Heinonen, Hanna ; Kaartinen, Tommi ; Puhakka, Jaakko ; Peltola, Minna ; Papirio, Stefano ; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija ; Zou, Gang ; Ylinen, Anna ; di Capua, Francesco ; Neitola, Raisa ; Gustafsson, Henrik ; Korhonen, Tero ; Karlsson, Teemu ; Kauppila, Tommi ; Laakso, Janita ; Mörsky, Pekka. / Solutions for control of nitrogen discharges at mines and quarries : Miniman project final report. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. 113 p. (VTT Technology; No. 225).
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abstract = "The growth of Finnish extractive industry increases the need to study and monitor different environmental impacts and to integrate the environmental issues more tightly into the overall framework of the activities. Nitrogen released from explosives or from mining processes and ending up in the water system can have negative environmental effects. The MINIMAN project, financed by the Tekes Green Mining Programme and the industry aimed at comprehensive understanding on the nitrogen issue in the extractive industry. The project collected essential data on nitrogen compounds present in the environments of mines and quarries, and developed technologies for the treatment of nitrogen containing mine water. Based on a technology review, selective sorption, electrochemically assisted membrane separation and biological treatment were selected to be studied and developed in the project. Denitrification and nitrification studies on synthetic mine wastewater in laboratory scale revealed that denitrification was possible at low pH (2.5) and temperatures as low as 7°C. Nitrification was more pH sensitive. Both processes tolerated metals (Fe, Ni, Co and As). In the adsorption tests with zeolite, complete ammonium removal from real mine wastewater was achieved with a hydraulic retention time of 2 minutes, with complete regeneration. In addition, a novel electropervaporative nitrogen capture technology was developed. Further larger scale testing and development of all technologies is required to ensure their feasibility in a real mining site. A follow-up period in lysimeters showed that the explosives originated nitrogen content of left over stones from natural stone quarrying is relatively low and ca. half of the nitrogen is leached within the first weeks after detonation. The main sources of nitrogen are process and dewatering waters, irrespective of the scale of extractive activity. The total potential nitrogen load to the environment depends on the scale and type of the activity as well as the type of explosives used. In addition to factors related to the activity itself, the overall nitrogen management should take into account the background concentrations and sensitivity of the local ecosystem.",
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Jermakka, J, Merta, E, Mroueh, U-M, Arkkola, H, Eskonniemi, S, Wendling, L, Laine-Ylijoki, J, Sohlberg, E, Heinonen, H, Kaartinen, T, Puhakka, J, Peltola, M, Papirio, S, Lakaniemi, A-M, Zou, G, Ylinen, A, di Capua, F, Neitola, R, Gustafsson, H, Korhonen, T, Karlsson, T, Kauppila, T, Laakso, J & Mörsky, P 2015, Solutions for control of nitrogen discharges at mines and quarries: Miniman project final report. VTT Technology, no. 225, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

Solutions for control of nitrogen discharges at mines and quarries : Miniman project final report. / Jermakka, Johannes; Merta, Elina; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Arkkola, Helena; Eskonniemi, Sini; Wendling, Laura; Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta; Sohlberg, Elina; Heinonen, Hanna; Kaartinen, Tommi; Puhakka, Jaakko; Peltola, Minna; Papirio, Stefano; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Zou, Gang; Ylinen, Anna; di Capua, Francesco; Neitola, Raisa; Gustafsson, Henrik; Korhonen, Tero; Karlsson, Teemu; Kauppila, Tommi; Laakso, Janita; Mörsky, Pekka.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. 113 p. (VTT Technology; No. 225).

Research output: Book/ReportReport

TY - BOOK

T1 - Solutions for control of nitrogen discharges at mines and quarries

T2 - Miniman project final report

AU - Jermakka, Johannes

AU - Merta, Elina

AU - Mroueh, Ulla-Maija

AU - Arkkola, Helena

AU - Eskonniemi, Sini

AU - Wendling, Laura

AU - Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta

AU - Sohlberg, Elina

AU - Heinonen, Hanna

AU - Kaartinen, Tommi

AU - Puhakka, Jaakko

AU - Peltola, Minna

AU - Papirio, Stefano

AU - Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija

AU - Zou, Gang

AU - Ylinen, Anna

AU - di Capua, Francesco

AU - Neitola, Raisa

AU - Gustafsson, Henrik

AU - Korhonen, Tero

AU - Karlsson, Teemu

AU - Kauppila, Tommi

AU - Laakso, Janita

AU - Mörsky, Pekka

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - The growth of Finnish extractive industry increases the need to study and monitor different environmental impacts and to integrate the environmental issues more tightly into the overall framework of the activities. Nitrogen released from explosives or from mining processes and ending up in the water system can have negative environmental effects. The MINIMAN project, financed by the Tekes Green Mining Programme and the industry aimed at comprehensive understanding on the nitrogen issue in the extractive industry. The project collected essential data on nitrogen compounds present in the environments of mines and quarries, and developed technologies for the treatment of nitrogen containing mine water. Based on a technology review, selective sorption, electrochemically assisted membrane separation and biological treatment were selected to be studied and developed in the project. Denitrification and nitrification studies on synthetic mine wastewater in laboratory scale revealed that denitrification was possible at low pH (2.5) and temperatures as low as 7°C. Nitrification was more pH sensitive. Both processes tolerated metals (Fe, Ni, Co and As). In the adsorption tests with zeolite, complete ammonium removal from real mine wastewater was achieved with a hydraulic retention time of 2 minutes, with complete regeneration. In addition, a novel electropervaporative nitrogen capture technology was developed. Further larger scale testing and development of all technologies is required to ensure their feasibility in a real mining site. A follow-up period in lysimeters showed that the explosives originated nitrogen content of left over stones from natural stone quarrying is relatively low and ca. half of the nitrogen is leached within the first weeks after detonation. The main sources of nitrogen are process and dewatering waters, irrespective of the scale of extractive activity. The total potential nitrogen load to the environment depends on the scale and type of the activity as well as the type of explosives used. In addition to factors related to the activity itself, the overall nitrogen management should take into account the background concentrations and sensitivity of the local ecosystem.

AB - The growth of Finnish extractive industry increases the need to study and monitor different environmental impacts and to integrate the environmental issues more tightly into the overall framework of the activities. Nitrogen released from explosives or from mining processes and ending up in the water system can have negative environmental effects. The MINIMAN project, financed by the Tekes Green Mining Programme and the industry aimed at comprehensive understanding on the nitrogen issue in the extractive industry. The project collected essential data on nitrogen compounds present in the environments of mines and quarries, and developed technologies for the treatment of nitrogen containing mine water. Based on a technology review, selective sorption, electrochemically assisted membrane separation and biological treatment were selected to be studied and developed in the project. Denitrification and nitrification studies on synthetic mine wastewater in laboratory scale revealed that denitrification was possible at low pH (2.5) and temperatures as low as 7°C. Nitrification was more pH sensitive. Both processes tolerated metals (Fe, Ni, Co and As). In the adsorption tests with zeolite, complete ammonium removal from real mine wastewater was achieved with a hydraulic retention time of 2 minutes, with complete regeneration. In addition, a novel electropervaporative nitrogen capture technology was developed. Further larger scale testing and development of all technologies is required to ensure their feasibility in a real mining site. A follow-up period in lysimeters showed that the explosives originated nitrogen content of left over stones from natural stone quarrying is relatively low and ca. half of the nitrogen is leached within the first weeks after detonation. The main sources of nitrogen are process and dewatering waters, irrespective of the scale of extractive activity. The total potential nitrogen load to the environment depends on the scale and type of the activity as well as the type of explosives used. In addition to factors related to the activity itself, the overall nitrogen management should take into account the background concentrations and sensitivity of the local ecosystem.

KW - mines

KW - quarries

KW - explosives

KW - nitrate

KW - ammonium

KW - water treatment technologies

M3 - Report

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BT - Solutions for control of nitrogen discharges at mines and quarries

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Jermakka J, Merta E, Mroueh U-M, Arkkola H, Eskonniemi S, Wendling L et al. Solutions for control of nitrogen discharges at mines and quarries: Miniman project final report. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. 113 p. (VTT Technology; No. 225).