Solvent-free Hydrodeoxygenation of γ-Nonalactone on Noble Metal Catalysts Supported on Zirconia

José Luis González Escobedo, Eveliina Mäkelä, Aki Braunschweiler, Juha Lehtonen, Marina Lindblad, Riikka L. Puurunen, Reetta Karinen

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    7 Citations (Scopus)


    The possibility to valorize levulinic acid (LA) dimers to lignocellulose-based biofuels via hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was assessed using γ-nonalactone (GNL) as a model compound. Catalytic HDO experiments were performed in a batch reactor at 280 °C and at an average pressure of 57.5 bar H 2 . Noble metal (Ru, Rh, Pd, and Pt) catalysts supported on ZrO 2 . All the catalysts were active in removing oxygen from the reactant. However, the most selective catalyst for hydrocarbons (24%) was ruthenium. Unlike the other tested catalysts, Ru also provided branched hydrocarbons. In view of Ru’s comparatively high selectivity to hydrocarbons, it was tested at various reaction temperatures (220–280 °C) for 300 min. The experiments at lower temperatures resulted in less hydrocarbons and more intermediate products, such as alcohols. In total, nearly 70 products were identified, and some of the reactions that likely occurred in the HDO experiments were discussed. The production of hydrocarbons from GNL highlights the potential of LA dimers as a route to lignocellulose-based biofuels.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)724-737
    Number of pages14
    JournalTopics in Catalysis
    Issue number7-11
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2019
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Fuel
    • Hydrocarbon
    • Hydrodeoxygenation
    • Levulinic acid dimer
    • Noble metal
    • γ-Nonalactone


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