Somatic embryogenesis in birches (Betula spp.)

Anna-Maria Nuutila, Ulrika Kurten, Riitta Puupponen-Pimiä, Jari Hämäläinen, Leena Mannonen, Veli Kauppinen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleScientificpeer-review


Members of the genus Betula are deciduous trees, bushes, or shrubs with brown branches and a trunk, the upper part of which is covered with smooth, silver-white to white bark and the base with blackish, fissured bark. Birches are monoecious: the purple-brown male flowers are housed is drooping catkins and the green female catkins are small and erect but hang when mature. The fruit is a winged achene (Jury 1978).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSomatic Embryogenesis and Synthetic Seed I
EditorsY.P.S. Bajaj
Place of PublicationBerlin,Heidelberg
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-662-03091-2
ISBN (Print)978-3-642-08183-5
Publication statusPublished - 1995
MoE publication typeA3 Part of a book or another research book

Publication series

SeriesBiotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry

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