Somatic embryogenesis in birches (Betula spp.)

Anna-Maria Nuutila, Ulrika Kurten, Riitta Puupponen-Pimiä, Jari Hämäläinen, Leena Mannonen, Veli Kauppinen

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleScientificpeer-review


    Members of the genus Betula are deciduous trees, bushes, or shrubs with brown branches and a trunk, the upper part of which is covered with smooth, silver-white to white bark and the base with blackish, fissured bark. Birches are monoecious: the purple-brown male flowers are housed is drooping catkins and the green female catkins are small and erect but hang when mature. The fruit is a winged achene (Jury 1978).
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationSomatic Embryogenesis and Synthetic Seed I
    EditorsY.P.S. Bajaj
    Place of PublicationBerlin,Heidelberg
    ISBN (Electronic)978-3-662-03091-2
    ISBN (Print)978-3-642-08183-5
    Publication statusPublished - 1995
    MoE publication typeA3 Part of a book or another research book

    Publication series

    SeriesBiotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry


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