Some observations on the shape of impinging diffusion flames

Matti Kokkala, William Rinkinen

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The structure of impinging diffusion flames of propane and natural gas on a ceiling is described. In these experiments, a burner with a diameter of 64 mm was used. The spacing between the burner surface and the horizontal ceiling was varied in the range of 15 mm - 100 mm and the nominal heal release rate in the range of 2.9 kW - 11 kW. New kinds of regular flame shapes were observed: compote rings, broken rings, laminar disc, daisy flower, and cellular daisy flower. Colour photographs of the various flame shapes are presented. Combustion processes causing the instabilities are discussed qualitatively, and differences between propane and natural gas flames are identified.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages19
ISBN (Print)951-38-2786-0
Publication statusPublished - 1987
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Publication series

NameTutkimuksia / Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus
PublisherVTT
Volume461

Fingerprint

Propane
Ceilings
Fuel burners
Natural gas
Color
Experiments

Keywords

  • impingement
  • diffusion properties
  • flame proofing
  • propane
  • natural gas
  • combustion
  • experiments
  • heat measurement burners

Cite this

Kokkala, M., & Rinkinen, W. (1987). Some observations on the shape of impinging diffusion flames. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus. Tutkimuksia - Research Reports, No. 461
Kokkala, Matti ; Rinkinen, William. / Some observations on the shape of impinging diffusion flames. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1987. 19 p. (Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus. Tutkimuksia - Research Reports; No. 461).
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Kokkala, M & Rinkinen, W 1987, Some observations on the shape of impinging diffusion flames. Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus. Tutkimuksia - Research Reports, no. 461, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

Some observations on the shape of impinging diffusion flames. / Kokkala, Matti; Rinkinen, William.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1987. 19 p. (Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus. Tutkimuksia - Research Reports; No. 461).

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

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N2 - The structure of impinging diffusion flames of propane and natural gas on a ceiling is described. In these experiments, a burner with a diameter of 64 mm was used. The spacing between the burner surface and the horizontal ceiling was varied in the range of 15 mm - 100 mm and the nominal heal release rate in the range of 2.9 kW - 11 kW. New kinds of regular flame shapes were observed: compote rings, broken rings, laminar disc, daisy flower, and cellular daisy flower. Colour photographs of the various flame shapes are presented. Combustion processes causing the instabilities are discussed qualitatively, and differences between propane and natural gas flames are identified.

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KW - diffusion properties

KW - flame proofing

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KW - natural gas

KW - combustion

KW - experiments

KW - heat measurement burners

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Kokkala M, Rinkinen W. Some observations on the shape of impinging diffusion flames. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1987. 19 p. (Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus. Tutkimuksia - Research Reports; No. 461).