Some observations on the shape of impinging diffusion flames

Matti Kokkala, William Rinkinen

Research output: Book/ReportReport

2 Citations (Scopus)


The structure of impinging diffusion flames of propane and natural gas on a ceiling is described. In these experiments, a burner with a diameter of 64 mm was used. The spacing between the burner surface and the horizontal ceiling was varied in the range of 15 mm - 100 mm and the nominal heal release rate in the range of 2.9 kW - 11 kW. New kinds of regular flame shapes were observed: compote rings, broken rings, laminar disc, daisy flower, and cellular daisy flower. Colour photographs of the various flame shapes are presented. Combustion processes causing the instabilities are discussed qualitatively, and differences between propane and natural gas flames are identified.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages19
ISBN (Print)951-38-2786-0
Publication statusPublished - 1987
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Publication series

SeriesValtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus. Tutkimuksia - Research Reports


  • impingement
  • diffusion properties
  • flame proofing
  • propane
  • natural gas
  • combustion
  • experiments
  • heat measurement burners


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