SO2 emission measurement with the European standard reference method, EN 14791, and alternative methods–observations from laboratory and field studies

Tuula Pellikka (Corresponding Author), Tuula Kajolinna, Miia Perälä

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

EN 14791 is a European Standard Reference method for the measurement of SO2 in emissions. This standard is based on a wet-chemical method in which SO2 present in flue gases is absorbed into an absorption solution containing hydrogen peroxide, and analyzed as sulfates after sampling. This study presents the results obtained when three portable automated measuring systems (P-AMS), based on Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) and ultraviolet-fluorescence (UV) techniques, were compared to the Standard Reference Method for SO2 (EN 14791) in order to verify whether they could be used as alternative methods (AM) to EN 14791. In the case of FTIR, the measurements were performed from hot and wet gas, without any conditioning. UV-fluorescence analyzers were equipped with dilution probes and one NDIR applied a permeation dryer, whereas the other had a chiller. Tests were carried out at concentration ranges from 0 to 200 mg/m3(n) and from 0 to 800 mg/m3(n) for testing of equivalency according to CEN/TS 14793 using a test bench. Equivalency test criteria were met for all tested P-AMS except for NDIR at the lower range. The SO2 results measured with NDIR and the chiller were lower compared to the set-up with NDIR and permeation. This was most probably due to the chiller causing absorption of SO2 in the condensate. Tests were also carried out at field conditions, measuring the SO2 emissions from a boiler combusting mainly bark. The same phenomena were observed in these tests as during the test bench study, i.e. the measurement set-up with NDIR and the chiller gave the lowest results. These data demonstrated that the tested alternative methods (FTIR, UV-fluorescence, and NDIR) could be used instead of the standard reference method EN 14791, thus providing real-time calibration of automated measuring systems. It must however be emphasized that when measuring water-soluble gases, such as SO2, the choice of suitable conditioning technique is critical in order to minimize losses of the studied component in the condensate. Implications: Portable automated measuring systems (P-AMS) provide real-time information about emissions and their concentrations, thus offering significant advantages compared to wet-chemical methods. This study presents results which can be used as a validation protocol to show that the tested P-AMS techniques (FTIR, NDIR, UV-fluorescence) could be used instead of EN 14791 (CEN 2017a) as alternative methods (AM), when paying attention to the selection of an appropriate conditioning technique.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1122-1131
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the Air and Waste Management Association
Volume69
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

fluorescence
conditioning
Fourier transform
chemical method
condensate
method
laboratory
measuring
European standard
field study
FTIR spectroscopy
gas
hydrogen peroxide
bark
test
dilution
probe
sulfate
calibration
sampling

Cite this

@article{feee7403c7474612ab87e7db0f0e99f3,
title = "SO2 emission measurement with the European standard reference method, EN 14791, and alternative methods–observations from laboratory and field studies",
abstract = "EN 14791 is a European Standard Reference method for the measurement of SO2 in emissions. This standard is based on a wet-chemical method in which SO2 present in flue gases is absorbed into an absorption solution containing hydrogen peroxide, and analyzed as sulfates after sampling. This study presents the results obtained when three portable automated measuring systems (P-AMS), based on Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) and ultraviolet-fluorescence (UV) techniques, were compared to the Standard Reference Method for SO2 (EN 14791) in order to verify whether they could be used as alternative methods (AM) to EN 14791. In the case of FTIR, the measurements were performed from hot and wet gas, without any conditioning. UV-fluorescence analyzers were equipped with dilution probes and one NDIR applied a permeation dryer, whereas the other had a chiller. Tests were carried out at concentration ranges from 0 to 200 mg/m3(n) and from 0 to 800 mg/m3(n) for testing of equivalency according to CEN/TS 14793 using a test bench. Equivalency test criteria were met for all tested P-AMS except for NDIR at the lower range. The SO2 results measured with NDIR and the chiller were lower compared to the set-up with NDIR and permeation. This was most probably due to the chiller causing absorption of SO2 in the condensate. Tests were also carried out at field conditions, measuring the SO2 emissions from a boiler combusting mainly bark. The same phenomena were observed in these tests as during the test bench study, i.e. the measurement set-up with NDIR and the chiller gave the lowest results. These data demonstrated that the tested alternative methods (FTIR, UV-fluorescence, and NDIR) could be used instead of the standard reference method EN 14791, thus providing real-time calibration of automated measuring systems. It must however be emphasized that when measuring water-soluble gases, such as SO2, the choice of suitable conditioning technique is critical in order to minimize losses of the studied component in the condensate. Implications: Portable automated measuring systems (P-AMS) provide real-time information about emissions and their concentrations, thus offering significant advantages compared to wet-chemical methods. This study presents results which can be used as a validation protocol to show that the tested P-AMS techniques (FTIR, NDIR, UV-fluorescence) could be used instead of EN 14791 (CEN 2017a) as alternative methods (AM), when paying attention to the selection of an appropriate conditioning technique.",
author = "Tuula Pellikka and Tuula Kajolinna and Miia Per{\"a}l{\"a}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "5",
doi = "10.1080/10962247.2019.1640809",
language = "English",
volume = "69",
pages = "1122--1131",
journal = "Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association",
issn = "1096-2247",
publisher = "Taylor & Francis",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - SO2 emission measurement with the European standard reference method, EN 14791, and alternative methods–observations from laboratory and field studies

AU - Pellikka, Tuula

AU - Kajolinna, Tuula

AU - Perälä, Miia

PY - 2019/8/5

Y1 - 2019/8/5

N2 - EN 14791 is a European Standard Reference method for the measurement of SO2 in emissions. This standard is based on a wet-chemical method in which SO2 present in flue gases is absorbed into an absorption solution containing hydrogen peroxide, and analyzed as sulfates after sampling. This study presents the results obtained when three portable automated measuring systems (P-AMS), based on Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) and ultraviolet-fluorescence (UV) techniques, were compared to the Standard Reference Method for SO2 (EN 14791) in order to verify whether they could be used as alternative methods (AM) to EN 14791. In the case of FTIR, the measurements were performed from hot and wet gas, without any conditioning. UV-fluorescence analyzers were equipped with dilution probes and one NDIR applied a permeation dryer, whereas the other had a chiller. Tests were carried out at concentration ranges from 0 to 200 mg/m3(n) and from 0 to 800 mg/m3(n) for testing of equivalency according to CEN/TS 14793 using a test bench. Equivalency test criteria were met for all tested P-AMS except for NDIR at the lower range. The SO2 results measured with NDIR and the chiller were lower compared to the set-up with NDIR and permeation. This was most probably due to the chiller causing absorption of SO2 in the condensate. Tests were also carried out at field conditions, measuring the SO2 emissions from a boiler combusting mainly bark. The same phenomena were observed in these tests as during the test bench study, i.e. the measurement set-up with NDIR and the chiller gave the lowest results. These data demonstrated that the tested alternative methods (FTIR, UV-fluorescence, and NDIR) could be used instead of the standard reference method EN 14791, thus providing real-time calibration of automated measuring systems. It must however be emphasized that when measuring water-soluble gases, such as SO2, the choice of suitable conditioning technique is critical in order to minimize losses of the studied component in the condensate. Implications: Portable automated measuring systems (P-AMS) provide real-time information about emissions and their concentrations, thus offering significant advantages compared to wet-chemical methods. This study presents results which can be used as a validation protocol to show that the tested P-AMS techniques (FTIR, NDIR, UV-fluorescence) could be used instead of EN 14791 (CEN 2017a) as alternative methods (AM), when paying attention to the selection of an appropriate conditioning technique.

AB - EN 14791 is a European Standard Reference method for the measurement of SO2 in emissions. This standard is based on a wet-chemical method in which SO2 present in flue gases is absorbed into an absorption solution containing hydrogen peroxide, and analyzed as sulfates after sampling. This study presents the results obtained when three portable automated measuring systems (P-AMS), based on Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) and ultraviolet-fluorescence (UV) techniques, were compared to the Standard Reference Method for SO2 (EN 14791) in order to verify whether they could be used as alternative methods (AM) to EN 14791. In the case of FTIR, the measurements were performed from hot and wet gas, without any conditioning. UV-fluorescence analyzers were equipped with dilution probes and one NDIR applied a permeation dryer, whereas the other had a chiller. Tests were carried out at concentration ranges from 0 to 200 mg/m3(n) and from 0 to 800 mg/m3(n) for testing of equivalency according to CEN/TS 14793 using a test bench. Equivalency test criteria were met for all tested P-AMS except for NDIR at the lower range. The SO2 results measured with NDIR and the chiller were lower compared to the set-up with NDIR and permeation. This was most probably due to the chiller causing absorption of SO2 in the condensate. Tests were also carried out at field conditions, measuring the SO2 emissions from a boiler combusting mainly bark. The same phenomena were observed in these tests as during the test bench study, i.e. the measurement set-up with NDIR and the chiller gave the lowest results. These data demonstrated that the tested alternative methods (FTIR, UV-fluorescence, and NDIR) could be used instead of the standard reference method EN 14791, thus providing real-time calibration of automated measuring systems. It must however be emphasized that when measuring water-soluble gases, such as SO2, the choice of suitable conditioning technique is critical in order to minimize losses of the studied component in the condensate. Implications: Portable automated measuring systems (P-AMS) provide real-time information about emissions and their concentrations, thus offering significant advantages compared to wet-chemical methods. This study presents results which can be used as a validation protocol to show that the tested P-AMS techniques (FTIR, NDIR, UV-fluorescence) could be used instead of EN 14791 (CEN 2017a) as alternative methods (AM), when paying attention to the selection of an appropriate conditioning technique.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85070473271&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/10962247.2019.1640809

DO - 10.1080/10962247.2019.1640809

M3 - Article

C2 - 31298978

AN - SCOPUS:85070473271

VL - 69

SP - 1122

EP - 1131

JO - Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association

JF - Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association

SN - 1096-2247

IS - 9

ER -