Space efficient system for whole-body exposure of unrestrained rats to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields

Lauri Puranen (Corresponding Author), Tim Toivo, Tommi Toivonen, Risto Pitkäaho, Asko Turunen, Ari-Pekka Sihvonen, Kari Jokela, Päivi Heikkinen, Timo Kumlin, Jukka Juutilainen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to design, implement and analyze a space‐efficient setup for the whole‐body exposure of unrestrained Wistar rats to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields at 900 MHz. The setup was used for 2 years in a cocarcinogenesis study and part of it for 5 weeks in a central nervous system (CNS) study. Up to 216 rats could be placed in separate cages in nine different exposure chambers on three racks requiring only 9 m2 of floor area (24 rats per m2). Chambers were radial transmission lines (RTL), where the rats could freely move in their cages where food and drinking water was provided ad libitum except during RF exposure periods. Dosimetrical analysis was based on FDTD computations with heterogeneous rat models and was validated with calorimetrical measurements carried out with homogeneous phantoms. The estimated whole‐body average specific absorption rates (SAR) of rats were 0 (sham), 0.4, and 1.3 W/kg in the cocarcinogenesis study and 0 (sham), 0.27, and 2.7 W/kg in the CNS study with an estimated uncertainty of 3 dB (K = 2). The instantaneous and lifetime variations of whole‐body average SAR due to the movement of rats were estimated to be 2.3 and 1.3 dB (K = 1), respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120-128
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • RF exposure and dosimetry
  • GSM 900 MHz
  • unrestrained rats
  • SAR


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