Space heating measurement in apartment buildings

Terttu Vainio, Miimu Airaksinen, Teemu Vesanen

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

    Abstract

    This project focused to find out the costs and benefits achieved through a) heating cost allocators c) building energy management systems and compare them with benefits achieved by other energy improvement measures both in the existing building stock and future new construction. In multi-apartment buildings with a central heating individual consumption meters or heat cost allocators shall be installed at demand of Energy Efficiency Directive, which came into force in December 2012. The introduction of individual billing of heat cost is justified by energy savings. Measuring heat energy consumption as an such obviously do not save energy, but it effects on resident's behaviour e.g. by avoiding window ventilation during the heating period. In Finland apartment buildings are typically equipped with ventilation, either by natural or mechanical exhaust or mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation. Opening windows for long term ventilation purposes is very seldom. The share of space heating is dominant is old buildings stock which do not have gone through major renovations. In the new and renovated building stock the share of space heating is decreasing due to improved thermal insulation, airtightness and ventilation heat recovery. According to this study the heat cost allocators increase the equipment costs of water central heating system in new and renovated buildings in Finland. The cost pressure compared to present situation is in old, not renovated buildings is about 10 per cent, after renovation 20-30 per cent and after major renovation 40-50 per cent. In new, very efficient buildings the cost allocation can be as much the energy cost of water central space heating itself. It is very unlikely and sometimes even impossible that the energy-saving behavior could compensate the additional cost caused by measuring system. Therefore heat cost allocators can exterminate savings achieved by ordinary or advanced building energy management systems.
    Original languageEnglish
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
    Number of pages27
    ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-8563-2
    Publication statusPublished - 2017
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible

    Publication series

    SeriesVTT Technology
    Number305
    ISSN2242-1211

    Fingerprint

    Space heating
    Costs
    Ventilation
    Heating
    Ventilation exhausts
    Energy management systems
    Energy conservation
    Thermal insulation
    Waste heat utilization
    Energy efficiency
    Water
    Energy utilization
    Hot Temperature

    Keywords

    • measurement of space heating
    • heat cost allocation

    Cite this

    Vainio, T., Airaksinen, M., & Vesanen, T. (2017). Space heating measurement in apartment buildings. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Technology, No. 305
    Vainio, Terttu ; Airaksinen, Miimu ; Vesanen, Teemu. / Space heating measurement in apartment buildings. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2017. 27 p. (VTT Technology; No. 305).
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    Vainio, T, Airaksinen, M & Vesanen, T 2017, Space heating measurement in apartment buildings. VTT Technology, no. 305, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

    Space heating measurement in apartment buildings. / Vainio, Terttu; Airaksinen, Miimu; Vesanen, Teemu.

    Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2017. 27 p. (VTT Technology; No. 305).

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

    TY - BOOK

    T1 - Space heating measurement in apartment buildings

    AU - Vainio, Terttu

    AU - Airaksinen, Miimu

    AU - Vesanen, Teemu

    PY - 2017

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    N2 - This project focused to find out the costs and benefits achieved through a) heating cost allocators c) building energy management systems and compare them with benefits achieved by other energy improvement measures both in the existing building stock and future new construction. In multi-apartment buildings with a central heating individual consumption meters or heat cost allocators shall be installed at demand of Energy Efficiency Directive, which came into force in December 2012. The introduction of individual billing of heat cost is justified by energy savings. Measuring heat energy consumption as an such obviously do not save energy, but it effects on resident's behaviour e.g. by avoiding window ventilation during the heating period. In Finland apartment buildings are typically equipped with ventilation, either by natural or mechanical exhaust or mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation. Opening windows for long term ventilation purposes is very seldom. The share of space heating is dominant is old buildings stock which do not have gone through major renovations. In the new and renovated building stock the share of space heating is decreasing due to improved thermal insulation, airtightness and ventilation heat recovery. According to this study the heat cost allocators increase the equipment costs of water central heating system in new and renovated buildings in Finland. The cost pressure compared to present situation is in old, not renovated buildings is about 10 per cent, after renovation 20-30 per cent and after major renovation 40-50 per cent. In new, very efficient buildings the cost allocation can be as much the energy cost of water central space heating itself. It is very unlikely and sometimes even impossible that the energy-saving behavior could compensate the additional cost caused by measuring system. Therefore heat cost allocators can exterminate savings achieved by ordinary or advanced building energy management systems.

    AB - This project focused to find out the costs and benefits achieved through a) heating cost allocators c) building energy management systems and compare them with benefits achieved by other energy improvement measures both in the existing building stock and future new construction. In multi-apartment buildings with a central heating individual consumption meters or heat cost allocators shall be installed at demand of Energy Efficiency Directive, which came into force in December 2012. The introduction of individual billing of heat cost is justified by energy savings. Measuring heat energy consumption as an such obviously do not save energy, but it effects on resident's behaviour e.g. by avoiding window ventilation during the heating period. In Finland apartment buildings are typically equipped with ventilation, either by natural or mechanical exhaust or mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation. Opening windows for long term ventilation purposes is very seldom. The share of space heating is dominant is old buildings stock which do not have gone through major renovations. In the new and renovated building stock the share of space heating is decreasing due to improved thermal insulation, airtightness and ventilation heat recovery. According to this study the heat cost allocators increase the equipment costs of water central heating system in new and renovated buildings in Finland. The cost pressure compared to present situation is in old, not renovated buildings is about 10 per cent, after renovation 20-30 per cent and after major renovation 40-50 per cent. In new, very efficient buildings the cost allocation can be as much the energy cost of water central space heating itself. It is very unlikely and sometimes even impossible that the energy-saving behavior could compensate the additional cost caused by measuring system. Therefore heat cost allocators can exterminate savings achieved by ordinary or advanced building energy management systems.

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    Vainio T, Airaksinen M, Vesanen T. Space heating measurement in apartment buildings. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2017. 27 p. (VTT Technology; No. 305).