Spectral entropy as a measure of hypnosis in children

Jaakko G. M. Klockars, Arja Hiller, Seppo Ranta, Pia Talja, Mark van Gils, Tomi Taivainen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: The Datex-Ohmeda S/5 Entropy Module (Datex-Ohmeda Division, Instrumentarium Corp., Helsinki, Finland), using time-frequency balanced Spectral Entropy, is a novel tool for monitoring the hypnotic state during anesthesia. The Entropy Module produces two values, State Entropy (SE) and Response Entropy (RE), and in adults, it has been shown to measure reliably the hypnotic effects of various drugs. In children, Spectral Entropy has been only preliminary studied. The authors' aim was to study Spectral Entropy as a marker of hypnotic state during general anesthesia in infants and children.

METHODS: Twenty infants (aged 1 month-1 yr) and 40 children (aged 1-15 yr) were anesthetized for surgery using standardized sevoflurane-nitrous oxide-based anesthesia. The relationships between SE, RE, or Bispectral Index (BIS) and (1) a modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale, (2) non-steady state end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane, (3) steady state end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane, and (4) hemodynamic values were calculated using prediction probability, nonlinear regression, and correlation coefficients, as appropriate. The performances of SE, RE, and BIS were compared.

RESULTS: The prediction probability values (+/- SEM) of SE, RE, and BIS versus the modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale in the induction phase were 0.83 +/- 0.06, 0.88 +/- 0.06, and 0.87 +/- 0.08 for children and 0.76 +/- 0.08,0.79 +/- 0.08, and 0.73 +/- 0.10 for infants; values in the emergence phase were 0.68 +/- 0.05, 0.74 +/- 0.04, and 0.64 +/- 0.05 for children and 0.64 +/- 0.07, 0.69 +/- 0.06, and 0.72 +/- 0.06 for infants, respectively. SE, RE, and BIS values were inversely proportionally related to the end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane for children, but for infants, the correlation was much less clear. No significant correlations were found between SE, RE, or BIS values and the hemodynamic values.

CONCLUSIONS: Spectral Entropy may be a useful tool for measuring the level of hypnosis in anesthetized children and seems to perform as well as BIS. In infants, the clinical usefulness of both these electroencephalogram-derived methods must be evaluated in further controlled studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)708-717
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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