Sprayformed hot work steels for rapid tooling

Yunfeng Yang, Simo-Pekka Hannula

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The present work compares microstructures of hot work steels made by different processes (they are sprayforming and casting) and a commercially supplied H13 steel. Material benefits are recognized by sprayforming hot working tools such as die inserts for hot forging. The sprayformed hot work steels present a fine and homogeneous microstructure, which implies that, at a similar toughness level, the sprayformed steel can be higher alloyed, so that the thermal fatigue and wear resistance at elevated temperatures can be improved. A series of steels with higher vanadium content than commercial hot work steels are developed. There are no segregation and carbide network problems usually encountered in conventional ingot/forging processed high-vanadium steels. Microstructure and hardness of the new sprayformed steels are studied under different heat treatment conditions. It is justified that these sprayformed steels can be directly used for tooling without high temperature hardening. Sprayforming the tool steels into a precision ceramic mould is demonstrated to extend the economic benefits, so that a net shape production tool can be rapidly made. Features of the rapid tooling process are also discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-172
JournalJournal of Materials Science and Technology
Issue numberSupplement 1
Publication statusPublished - 2003
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • rapid tooling
  • sprayforming
  • hot working steel
  • die insert


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