Local negative feedback derived within the cryogenic stage from the output current of a voltage-biased SQUID series array is used to linearize the flux response and to simultaneously approach the noise matching resistance of the room temperature readout amplifier. The flux noise level of the SQUID array was 0.5 μΦ0 Hz−1/2 in open loop and 0.8 μΦ0 Hz−1/2 in the feedback arrangement having a 2.2 Φ0 peak-to-peak flux locking range. The noise level degraded to 2 μΦ0 Hz−1/2 in an arrangement with a 7Φ0 locking range. Very good linearity was observed in the feedback system regardless of the modest loop gain, owing to the open-loop SQUID characteristics which are more linear in the voltage-biased case than in the current-biased case. Upward and downward slew rates of 3.4 and 1.2Φ0 µs−1 were recorded which, however, do not represent ultimate limits of the approach. Local feedback schemes are reviewed and their effect on the linearity of a SQUID system is discussed.
- SQUID arrays
- quantum interference
- quantum interference phenomena