Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated single-crystal silicon resonators

Ville Kaajakari (Corresponding Author), Jyrki Kiihamäki, Aarne Oja, Sami Pietikäinen, Ville Kokkala, Heikki Kuisma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated micromechanical resonators is characterized. The resonators are etched of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and encapsulated with anodic bonding. Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator show drift better than 0.1 ppm/month demonstrating that the stability requirements for a reference oscillator can be met with MEMS. The drift of flexural resonators range from 4 ppm/month to over 500 ppm/month depending on resonator anchoring. The large drift exhibited by some flexural resonator types is attributed to packaging related stresses demonstrated by the sample temperature–frequency coefficients differing from the bulk silicon value.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-47
Number of pages6
JournalSensors and Actuators A: Physical
Volume130-131
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed
Event13th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems - Seoul, Korea, Republic of
Duration: 5 Jun 20059 Jun 2005

Fingerprint

Silicon
Resonators
resonators
Single crystals
wafers
Vacuum
vacuum
single crystals
silicon
Micromechanical resonators
Reactive ion etching
MEMS
Packaging
packaging
microelectromechanical systems
Acoustic waves
oscillators
insulators
etching
requirements

Keywords

  • microresonators
  • stability
  • reference oscillator
  • resonators

Cite this

Kaajakari, Ville ; Kiihamäki, Jyrki ; Oja, Aarne ; Pietikäinen, Sami ; Kokkala, Ville ; Kuisma, Heikki. / Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated single-crystal silicon resonators. In: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2006 ; Vol. 130-131. pp. 42-47.
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abstract = "Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated micromechanical resonators is characterized. The resonators are etched of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and encapsulated with anodic bonding. Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator show drift better than 0.1 ppm/month demonstrating that the stability requirements for a reference oscillator can be met with MEMS. The drift of flexural resonators range from 4 ppm/month to over 500 ppm/month depending on resonator anchoring. The large drift exhibited by some flexural resonator types is attributed to packaging related stresses demonstrated by the sample temperature–frequency coefficients differing from the bulk silicon value.",
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Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated single-crystal silicon resonators. / Kaajakari, Ville (Corresponding Author); Kiihamäki, Jyrki; Oja, Aarne; Pietikäinen, Sami; Kokkala, Ville; Kuisma, Heikki.

In: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 130-131, 2006, p. 42-47.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated single-crystal silicon resonators

AU - Kaajakari, Ville

AU - Kiihamäki, Jyrki

AU - Oja, Aarne

AU - Pietikäinen, Sami

AU - Kokkala, Ville

AU - Kuisma, Heikki

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated micromechanical resonators is characterized. The resonators are etched of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and encapsulated with anodic bonding. Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator show drift better than 0.1 ppm/month demonstrating that the stability requirements for a reference oscillator can be met with MEMS. The drift of flexural resonators range from 4 ppm/month to over 500 ppm/month depending on resonator anchoring. The large drift exhibited by some flexural resonator types is attributed to packaging related stresses demonstrated by the sample temperature–frequency coefficients differing from the bulk silicon value.

AB - Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated micromechanical resonators is characterized. The resonators are etched of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and encapsulated with anodic bonding. Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator show drift better than 0.1 ppm/month demonstrating that the stability requirements for a reference oscillator can be met with MEMS. The drift of flexural resonators range from 4 ppm/month to over 500 ppm/month depending on resonator anchoring. The large drift exhibited by some flexural resonator types is attributed to packaging related stresses demonstrated by the sample temperature–frequency coefficients differing from the bulk silicon value.

KW - microresonators

KW - stability

KW - reference oscillator

KW - resonators

U2 - 10.1016/j.sna.2005.10.034

DO - 10.1016/j.sna.2005.10.034

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VL - 130-131

SP - 42

EP - 47

JO - Sensors and Actuators A: Physical

JF - Sensors and Actuators A: Physical

SN - 0924-4247

ER -