Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated single-crystal silicon resonators

Ville Kaajakari (Corresponding Author), Jyrki Kiihamäki, Aarne Oja, Sami Pietikäinen, Ville Kokkala, Heikki Kuisma

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    44 Citations (Scopus)


    Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated micromechanical resonators is characterized. The resonators are etched of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and encapsulated with anodic bonding. Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator show drift better than 0.1 ppm/month demonstrating that the stability requirements for a reference oscillator can be met with MEMS. The drift of flexural resonators range from 4 ppm/month to over 500 ppm/month depending on resonator anchoring. The large drift exhibited by some flexural resonator types is attributed to packaging related stresses demonstrated by the sample temperature–frequency coefficients differing from the bulk silicon value.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)42-47
    Number of pages6
    JournalSensors and Actuators A: Physical
    Publication statusPublished - 2006
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed
    Event13th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, TRANSDUCERS '05 - Seoul, Korea, Republic of
    Duration: 5 Jun 20059 Jun 2005


    • microresonators
    • stability
    • reference oscillator
    • resonators


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