Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated single-crystal silicon resonators

Ville Kaajakari (Corresponding Author), Jyrki Kiihamäki, Aarne Oja, Sami Pietikäinen, Ville Kokkala, Heikki Kuisma

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    32 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated micromechanical resonators is characterized. The resonators are etched of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and encapsulated with anodic bonding. Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator show drift better than 0.1 ppm/month demonstrating that the stability requirements for a reference oscillator can be met with MEMS. The drift of flexural resonators range from 4 ppm/month to over 500 ppm/month depending on resonator anchoring. The large drift exhibited by some flexural resonator types is attributed to packaging related stresses demonstrated by the sample temperature–frequency coefficients differing from the bulk silicon value.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)42-47
    Number of pages6
    JournalSensors and Actuators A: Physical
    Volume130-131
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2006
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed
    Event13th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems - Seoul, Korea, Republic of
    Duration: 5 Jun 20059 Jun 2005

    Fingerprint

    Silicon
    Resonators
    resonators
    Single crystals
    wafers
    Vacuum
    vacuum
    single crystals
    silicon
    Micromechanical resonators
    Reactive ion etching
    MEMS
    Packaging
    packaging
    microelectromechanical systems
    Acoustic waves
    oscillators
    insulators
    etching
    requirements

    Keywords

    • microresonators
    • stability
    • reference oscillator
    • resonators

    Cite this

    Kaajakari, Ville ; Kiihamäki, Jyrki ; Oja, Aarne ; Pietikäinen, Sami ; Kokkala, Ville ; Kuisma, Heikki. / Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated single-crystal silicon resonators. In: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2006 ; Vol. 130-131. pp. 42-47.
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    abstract = "Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated micromechanical resonators is characterized. The resonators are etched of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and encapsulated with anodic bonding. Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator show drift better than 0.1 ppm/month demonstrating that the stability requirements for a reference oscillator can be met with MEMS. The drift of flexural resonators range from 4 ppm/month to over 500 ppm/month depending on resonator anchoring. The large drift exhibited by some flexural resonator types is attributed to packaging related stresses demonstrated by the sample temperature–frequency coefficients differing from the bulk silicon value.",
    keywords = "microresonators, stability, reference oscillator, resonators",
    author = "Ville Kaajakari and Jyrki Kiiham{\"a}ki and Aarne Oja and Sami Pietik{\"a}inen and Ville Kokkala and Heikki Kuisma",
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    Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated single-crystal silicon resonators. / Kaajakari, Ville (Corresponding Author); Kiihamäki, Jyrki; Oja, Aarne; Pietikäinen, Sami; Kokkala, Ville; Kuisma, Heikki.

    In: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 130-131, 2006, p. 42-47.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated single-crystal silicon resonators

    AU - Kaajakari, Ville

    AU - Kiihamäki, Jyrki

    AU - Oja, Aarne

    AU - Pietikäinen, Sami

    AU - Kokkala, Ville

    AU - Kuisma, Heikki

    PY - 2006

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    N2 - Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated micromechanical resonators is characterized. The resonators are etched of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and encapsulated with anodic bonding. Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator show drift better than 0.1 ppm/month demonstrating that the stability requirements for a reference oscillator can be met with MEMS. The drift of flexural resonators range from 4 ppm/month to over 500 ppm/month depending on resonator anchoring. The large drift exhibited by some flexural resonator types is attributed to packaging related stresses demonstrated by the sample temperature–frequency coefficients differing from the bulk silicon value.

    AB - Stability of wafer level vacuum encapsulated micromechanical resonators is characterized. The resonators are etched of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and encapsulated with anodic bonding. Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator show drift better than 0.1 ppm/month demonstrating that the stability requirements for a reference oscillator can be met with MEMS. The drift of flexural resonators range from 4 ppm/month to over 500 ppm/month depending on resonator anchoring. The large drift exhibited by some flexural resonator types is attributed to packaging related stresses demonstrated by the sample temperature–frequency coefficients differing from the bulk silicon value.

    KW - microresonators

    KW - stability

    KW - reference oscillator

    KW - resonators

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