Standard liquid fuel for industrial boilers from used wood

Christian Lindfors, Anja Oasmaa, Alexi Välimäki, Taina Ohra-Aho, Henna Punkkinen, Jutta Laine-Ylijoki

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific


The purpose of the research was to validate if the fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO) from used wood would meet the specifications set by the standard EN 16900-2017 for industrial boilers. Commercial used wood Class C was used for fast pyrolysis. According to physical characterization studies, the dominant material groups were (virgin) wood (i.e. no visible coatings) (58 wt%) and chemically treated wood (41 wt%). The share of plastics was 0.7 wt%. The contents of heavy metals were not significant. No bromine was observed and the content of chlorine was ≤0.05 wt%. Prior pyrolysis studies, the sample was grinded, dried, and sieved. Plastic fraction was separated to over 0.98 mm sieve fraction. The main fraction having particle size of 0.55 − 0.98 mm containing wood was tested in one experiment and a mixture of plastic fraction (over 0.98 mm) and wood fraction (0.55 − 0.98 mm) was tested in two other experiments. The fines below 0.55 mm were removed; Pb was found only in this finest fraction. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a bench scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor (1 kg/h). Organic yields were lower (42 − 47 wt%) than with sawdust (62 wt%) but at the same level than those with stored forest residues (46 wt%). The side products char and gases are combusted for process energy in commercial integrated process. The liquid product had a high water content, which resulted in a spontaneous phase separation. The phases were mixed together, and a part of water was gently removed to obtain a single phase product with a water content of 21 wt%. The liquid product was a homogenous fluid, which in most cases met the demands of the EN standard and hence can be used in industrial boilers. All product met the specifications for REACH.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2018
PublisherETA-Florence Renewable Energies
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)978-88-89407-18-9
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018
MoE publication typeB3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
Event26th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2018
- Bella center, Copenhagen, Denmark
Duration: 14 May 201817 May 2018


Conference26th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2018
Abbreviated titleEUBCE 2018


  • Pyrolysis
  • Pyrolysis oil
  • Used wood

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    Lindfors, C., Oasmaa, A., Välimäki, A., Ohra-Aho, T., Punkkinen, H., & Laine-Ylijoki, J. (2018). Standard liquid fuel for industrial boilers from used wood. In Proceedings of European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2018 (pp. 1030-1034). ETA-Florence Renewable Energies.