Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods

Jack R. III Ferrell (Corresponding Author), Mariefel V. Olarte, Earl D. Christensen, Asanga B. Padmaperuma, Raynella M. Connatser, Filip Stankovikj, Dietrich Meier, Ville Paasikallio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this perspective, we discuss the standardization of analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oils, including the current status of methods, and our opinions on future directions. First, the history of past standardization efforts is summarized, and both successful and unsuccessful validation of analytical techniques highlighted. The majority of analytical standardization studies to-date has tested only physical characterization techniques. Here, we present results from an international round robin on the validation of chemical characterization techniques for bio-oils. Techniques tested included acid number, carbonyl titrations using two different methods (one at room temperature and one at 80?°C), 31P NMR for determination of hydroxyl groups, and a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Both carbonyl titration and acid number methods have yielded acceptable inter-laboratory variabilities. 31P NMR produced acceptable results for aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, but not for carboxylic hydroxyl groups. As shown in previous round robins, GC-MS results were more variable. Reliable chemical characterization of bio-oils will enable upgrading research and allow for detailed comparisons of bio-oils produced at different facilities. Reliable analytics are also needed to enable an emerging bioenergy industry, as processing facilities often have different analytical needs and capabilities than research facilities. We feel that correlations in reliable characterizations of bio-oils will help strike a balance between research and industry, and will ultimately help to -determine metrics for bio-oil quality. Finally, the standardization of additional analytical methods is needed, particularly for upgraded bio-oils.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)496-507
JournalBiofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining
Volume10
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Standardization
Oils
Pyrolysis
Hydroxyl Radical
Titration
Gas chromatography
Mass spectrometry
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Acids
Industry
Processing

Keywords

  • bio-oil
  • analysis
  • analytical
  • titration
  • round robin
  • pyrolys

Cite this

Ferrell, J. R. III., Olarte, M. V., Christensen, E. D., Padmaperuma, A. B., Connatser, R. M., Stankovikj, F., ... Paasikallio, V. (2016). Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 10(5), 496-507. https://doi.org/10.1002/bbb.1661
Ferrell, Jack R. III ; Olarte, Mariefel V. ; Christensen, Earl D. ; Padmaperuma, Asanga B. ; Connatser, Raynella M. ; Stankovikj, Filip ; Meier, Dietrich ; Paasikallio, Ville. / Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods. In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. 2016 ; Vol. 10, No. 5. pp. 496-507.
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Ferrell, JRIII, Olarte, MV, Christensen, ED, Padmaperuma, AB, Connatser, RM, Stankovikj, F, Meier, D & Paasikallio, V 2016, 'Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods', Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 496-507. https://doi.org/10.1002/bbb.1661

Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods. / Ferrell, Jack R. III (Corresponding Author); Olarte, Mariefel V.; Christensen, Earl D.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Stankovikj, Filip; Meier, Dietrich; Paasikallio, Ville.

In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, Vol. 10, No. 5, 2016, p. 496-507.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods

AU - Ferrell, Jack R. III

AU - Olarte, Mariefel V.

AU - Christensen, Earl D.

AU - Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

AU - Connatser, Raynella M.

AU - Stankovikj, Filip

AU - Meier, Dietrich

AU - Paasikallio, Ville

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N2 - In this perspective, we discuss the standardization of analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oils, including the current status of methods, and our opinions on future directions. First, the history of past standardization efforts is summarized, and both successful and unsuccessful validation of analytical techniques highlighted. The majority of analytical standardization studies to-date has tested only physical characterization techniques. Here, we present results from an international round robin on the validation of chemical characterization techniques for bio-oils. Techniques tested included acid number, carbonyl titrations using two different methods (one at room temperature and one at 80?°C), 31P NMR for determination of hydroxyl groups, and a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Both carbonyl titration and acid number methods have yielded acceptable inter-laboratory variabilities. 31P NMR produced acceptable results for aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, but not for carboxylic hydroxyl groups. As shown in previous round robins, GC-MS results were more variable. Reliable chemical characterization of bio-oils will enable upgrading research and allow for detailed comparisons of bio-oils produced at different facilities. Reliable analytics are also needed to enable an emerging bioenergy industry, as processing facilities often have different analytical needs and capabilities than research facilities. We feel that correlations in reliable characterizations of bio-oils will help strike a balance between research and industry, and will ultimately help to -determine metrics for bio-oil quality. Finally, the standardization of additional analytical methods is needed, particularly for upgraded bio-oils.

AB - In this perspective, we discuss the standardization of analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oils, including the current status of methods, and our opinions on future directions. First, the history of past standardization efforts is summarized, and both successful and unsuccessful validation of analytical techniques highlighted. The majority of analytical standardization studies to-date has tested only physical characterization techniques. Here, we present results from an international round robin on the validation of chemical characterization techniques for bio-oils. Techniques tested included acid number, carbonyl titrations using two different methods (one at room temperature and one at 80?°C), 31P NMR for determination of hydroxyl groups, and a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Both carbonyl titration and acid number methods have yielded acceptable inter-laboratory variabilities. 31P NMR produced acceptable results for aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, but not for carboxylic hydroxyl groups. As shown in previous round robins, GC-MS results were more variable. Reliable chemical characterization of bio-oils will enable upgrading research and allow for detailed comparisons of bio-oils produced at different facilities. Reliable analytics are also needed to enable an emerging bioenergy industry, as processing facilities often have different analytical needs and capabilities than research facilities. We feel that correlations in reliable characterizations of bio-oils will help strike a balance between research and industry, and will ultimately help to -determine metrics for bio-oil quality. Finally, the standardization of additional analytical methods is needed, particularly for upgraded bio-oils.

KW - bio-oil

KW - analysis

KW - analytical

KW - titration

KW - round robin

KW - pyrolys

U2 - 10.1002/bbb.1661

DO - 10.1002/bbb.1661

M3 - Article

VL - 10

SP - 496

EP - 507

JO - Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining

JF - Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining

SN - 1932-104X

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