Standards for plant synthetic biology: A common syntax for exchange of DNA parts

Nicola J. Patron (Corresponding Author), D., Orzaez, S. Marillonnet, H. Warzecha, C. Matthewman, M. Youles, O. Raitskin, Aymeric Leveau, G. Farré, C. Rogers, A. Smith, J. Hibberd, A.A.R. Webb, J. Locke, S. Schornack, J. Ajioka, D. C. Baulcombe, C. Zipfel, S. Kamoun, J. D. G. JonesH. Kuhn, S. Robatzek, H. P. Van Esse, D. Sanders, G. Oldroyd, C. Martin, R. Field, S. O'Connor, S. Fox, B. Wulff, B. Miller, A. Breakspear, G. Radhakrishnan, P.-M. Delaux, D. Loqué, A. Granell, A. Tissier, P. Shih, T. P. Brutnell, W.P. Quick, Heiko Rischer, P. D. Fraser, A. Aharoni, C. Raines, P. F. South, J.-M. Ané, B. R. Hamberger, J. Langdale, J. Stougaard, H. Bouwmeester

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

193 Citations (Scopus)


Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-19
JournalNew Phytologist
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • cloning
  • DNA assembly
  • genetic syntax
  • GoldenGate
  • synthetic biology
  • Type IIS restriction endonucleases


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