Starch-based biocomposite films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals from garlic stalks

Melissa B. Agustin, Bashir Ahmmad (Corresponding Author), Enna Richel P. de Leon, Jerico L. Buenaobra, Joel R. Salazar, Fumihiko Hirose

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

81 Citations (Scopus)


The study was conducted to reinforce starch-based biocomposite films using cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from garlic stalks. An average yield of 4.6% by mass based from air-dried garlic stalks was obtained through alkali delignification, acid hydrolysis and sonication. The isolated CNCs are spherical and have an average diameter of 35 nm and crystallinity of 62%. Fourier transform infrared spectra correspond to the structure of cellulose, but some absorption bands corresponding to hemicelluloses were also noticed. Starch-based biocomposite films with varying amount of the isolated CNCs as reinforcing filler were prepared by solution casting and evaporation method. Scanning electron micrographs of the films showed homogeneous dispersion of CNC in the starch matrix. Improvement in tensile strength and modulus was at maximum when the starch to CNC ratio is 100:5. The thermal stability of the films, on the other hand, decreased with the addition of CNC. Finally, CNC-reinforced films had lower moisture uptake than nonreinforced films.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1325–1332
JournalPolymer Composites
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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