State of Charge Influence on the Harmonic Distortion from Electric Vehicle Charging

Luis Manuel Caro, Gustavo Ramos, Kalle Rauma, David Felipe Celeita Rodriguez, Davis Montenegro Martinez, Christian Rehtanz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


There is a general interest from manufacturers, users, regulation institutions, and research around electric vehicles development and its relation with the grid infrastructure. The penetration of electric vehicles in distribution networks brings considerable challenges in terms of power quality, particularly harmonic emissions. Such challenges are more evident in scenarios with high penetration of electric vehicles which consider the clustering effect in the charging process. Methodologies such as hosting capacity model electric vehicles as a constant power load with constant harmonic distortion along the entire charging process. This article presents the relationship between the charging algorithms of the electric vehicle chargers, the state of charge of the batteries, and the harmonic current distortion generated during the charging process. This model proposes that the harmonic current distortion depends on the state of charge of the battery and the charging algorithm of the vehicle. As this study would change meaningfully, the current studies of power quality related to electric vehicles, practical measurements in two charging stations, and offline simulations of the identified on-board chargers are shown to support the content of this article.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9349104
Pages (from-to)2077-2088
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • DC-DC converter
  • distribution networks
  • electric vehicles
  • state of charge and charging algorithms
  • total harmonic distortion


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