Structural and morphological changes in kraft lignin during hydrothermal carbonization

Hanne Wikberg (Corresponding Author), Taina Ohra-aho, Filoklis Pileidis, Maria-Magdalena Titirici

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper we have investigated the changes in kraft lignin structure and morphology upon hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) at 240 °C with and without the presence of carbonization catalysts. The main conclusion of this study is that the structure of kraft lignin was altered only slightly during the hydrothermal carbonization. The main changes in the kraft lignin's structure were demethylation and dealkylation as well as cleavage of ß-O-4 bonds. The final product had a more thermally stable and complex cross-linked structure. More pronounced changes occurred in the material structure and morphology upon the addition of catalysts. The energy density of the resulting materials was not significantly different from the energy density of the original kraft lignin.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2737-2745
JournalACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • hydrotehrmal carbonization
  • kraft lignin
  • lignin-derived carbonaceous materials

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